acculturation: process by which immigrant groups adopt the language, dress, values, and norms of the host society

achievement gap: racial differences in educational opportunity, learning, and achievement

activism: ideas, concepts, strategies, and ideologies that guide social change

affirmative action: practice of remedying past discrimination using race-conscious measures

Affordable Care Act (ACA): policy adopted in 2010 that provided a system of health insurance exchanges and that brought health insurance to more people in the United States than ever before

anti-Semitism: hatred and disparagement of Jewish people

assimilation: process by which ethnic groups are incorporated into the dominant culture

assimilation model: a theoretical perspective analyzing the process by which immigrant groups become integrated into host society

audit studies: experiments that use actors and/or other simulations to reveal when discrimination occurs

authoritarian personality: characterized by having little tolerance for difference, being rigid in judgments of others, and being highly obedient to authority

aversive racism: subtle form of prejudice guided by unconscious beliefs about the inferiority of racial-ethnic groups

bracero program: formal agreement initiated in 1942 between the United States and Mexico that permitted Mexican citizens to work in the United States for temporary, renewable periods

Brown v. Board of Education (1954): Supreme Court decision that ruled school segregation in public facilities, including schools, unconstitutional

capitalism: economic system based on the pursuit of profit and private ownership

carceral state: society where security spreads everywhere as a mechanism for social control of the population

care work: labor that people do to sustain life, such as childcare, cleaning, and cooking

chattel: system wherein human beings are the property of others for a lifetime

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): law denying the entry of Chinese laborers to the United States

Civil Rights Act (1964): law banning discrimination in employment and creating the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

class: system of inequality by which groups have different access to economic, social, and political resources

colorblind racism: idea that it is best to just ignore race and to look at people as if they are all alike

colorism: discriminatory treatment of people based on gradations of skin color

concentrated poverty: said to occur when 40 percent or more of a given census area fall below the federal poverty line

content analysis: method of research that systematically documents the images in various cultural artifacts

controlling image: image that restricts ideas about people, particularly people of color

crime index: measure of crimes that includes murder/non-negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny/theft, and motor vehicle theft

critical race theory: viewpoint that the media and popular culture reflect and re-create hierarchical systems of race, class, and gender in society

cultural appropriation: process by which privileged groups consume and “claim” the culture of an oppressed or colonized group

cultural capital: noneconomic assets—knowledge and resources—that advantaged groups get by virtue of their location in society

cultural competence: ability to both recognize and understand cultural differences

cultural hegemony: pervasive and excessive influence of one culture throughout society

cultural production: process by which cultural images and ideas are made

cultural racism: images and ideas that presume the superiority of Whites and inferiority of people of color

culture: beliefs and practices that orient people to their society

culture of affirmation: beliefs that provide groups with a positive identity

culture of resistance: beliefs that people create explicitly to challenge controlling images in the dominant culture

death rate: calculation of the number of deaths in a given population, relative to the population size, in a given period of time

deep poverty: living on less than three thousand dollars a year

deindustrialization: shift away from a manufacturing-based economy to a service-based economy

demographic change: population change, including change in the characteristics of a given population

diaspora: connection that people of color have across the globe because of the interconnectedness of their experiences

discrimination: behavior that treats groups differently because of a presumed characteristic

dominant culture: culture associated with the most powerful group in society

economic restructuring: socioeconomic changes that are altering patterns of employment, including deindustrialization, technological change, globalization, and demographic change

environmental justice: principle that all people and communities are entitled to equal protection in the environment and public health

environmental racism: pattern by which racial-ethnic minorities are disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards

ethnic enclaves: niches where there is a clustering of particular immigrant groups in a given occupation or industry

ethnic group: identifiable group of people who share a common culture, language, regional origin, and/or religion

ethnocentrism: the belief that one’s group is superior to all other groups

eugenics: practices that purport to improve the human race by controlling the reproduction of people deemed to be “inferior” or genetically compromised

Fair Housing Act (1968): federal law prohibiting discrimination in housing

familism: pattern among Latinos of a very strong attachment to family

family household: census unit that includes at least two members related by birth, marriage, or adoption

fictive kin: those who are part of an extended family network, even if not biologically related

Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1868): constitutional decision granting equal protection under the law

genocide: international crime that destroys, in whole or part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group

genotype: full set of genes found in a given organism

Gentleman’s Agreement (1907): agreement between the United States and Japan that barred further entry of Japanese laborers

Gini coefficient: measure of income distribution in a given group or society, ranging from zero to one

globalization: increasing economic linkage between different nations

Great Migration: movement of large numbers of African Americans to northern and midwestern cities beginning in the early twentieth century and lasting for almost six decades

Grutter v. Bollinger (2003): Supreme Court decision upholding the right of universities to consider race along with other factors in admissions decisions

Hart-Celler Act (1965): federal immigration law eliminating the national origins quota created by the Immigration Law of 1924 and giving priority to family reunification and occupational skill as criteria for entry to the United States

hate crime: characterized by evidence of prejudice based on race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, disability, gender, or gender identity

household: everyone living in a residential unit

householder: person who owns or rents a residential unit

human capital: individual characteristics of workers, such as education, skills, prior experience, age, and marital status

hypercriminalization: process by which an individual’s behaviors become treated as risk, threat, or crime

hypersegregation: occurs when nearly all of the residents of a given area are of the same group

hypertension: condition of elevated blood pressure

hypodescent: see one drop rule

identity: person’s self-conception

identity contingency: something to be dealt with that derives from one’s identity

identity matrix: configuration of social factors that constitute one’s definition of self

identity work: process by which people construct and maintain positive identities

ideology: constellation of beliefs that purport to justify and defend the status quo

implicit bias: unconscious, negative associations held against particular groups

income: money brought into a household over a given period from various sources, such as earnings

index of dissimilarity: measure of the extent to which two groups are distributed across a given place

Indian Removal Act (1830): federal law mandating the removal of all Indian groups to the area identified as Indian Territory

infant mortality: number of infant deaths in a given year per 1,000 births

information technology revolution: process by which information technology permeates society

institutional racism: seemingly sanctioned pattern of racial advantage and disadvantage

intersectional theory: analyses that examine the connections between different social factors, especially class, race, gender, and sexuality

labeling theory: analysis suggesting that once a person or group is identified a particular way, the label sticks

laissez-faire racism: tendency for White people to minimize the effects of racism and do nothing about it

life expectancy: average number of years people born in a particular year can expect to live

mass incarceration: pattern by which inordinately large numbers of people of color are imprisoned

mass media: channels of communication that transmit information to a wide segment of the population

matriarchy: society in which women hold power

median income: income level at which half the population has higher income, and half, lower

meritocracy: system whereby people are hierarchically arranged solely based on their achievements

microaggressions: commonplace verbal or behavioral instances that communicate insults toward people of color

minority group: group with less power than a dominant group

National Crime Victimization Survey: annual survey of the United States that provides information about violent nonfatal and property crimes

National Origins Act (1924): federal law that restricted the entry of new immigrants to 2 percent of the total number of people of each nationality that had been in the United States in 1890

nativism: ideology that promotes the interests of people already living within a given nation

nonfamily household: census unit where persons are living alone or where nonrelatives share a residential unit

nonviolent civil disobedience: philosophy and practice of disrupting patterns of segregation by refusing to obey laws, customs, and norms

objectification: process of treating a human being as an object or thing

occupational segregation: pattern by which different groups of people are niched into certain occupations based on characteristics such as race, gender, or age

one drop rule: practice wherein a certain amount of presumed “black blood” legally defined someone as Black

othermothers: women who raise children other than their own

panethnicity: collective identity formed when multiple ethnic groups forge a sense of shared belonging

paper sons: pattern whereby many Chinese men were claimed as sons when official records had been destroyed by fire

phenotype: sum total of observable physical characteristics, including those influenced by environmental factors

picture brides: Asian women in marriages arranged by a broker

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): Supreme Court decision that allowed the practice of “separate but equal”

political economy: linkage between power and economic systems

popular culture: beliefs, ideas, images, and objects that are part of everyday life

poverty line: official measure of poverty based on a 1930s calculation of the cost of a basic food budget, multiplied by three and adjusted for the cost of living

predatory lending: practice of financing very high-risk loans with little review of people’s ability to pay

prejudice: negative attitude toward a person or group based on their presumed characteristics

race: group treated as distinct in society based on presumed characteristics that have been interpreted as signifying inferiority or superiority

race-immigration nexus: linkage between immigration and race, specifically how social institutions, ideology, and social practices regarding immigration reinforce racial ideas

racial division of labor: organization of different tasks as based on race

racial formation: process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed, and/or destroyed

racial frames: scripts that frame how we see ourselves and others through the lens of race

racial identity: sense one has of oneself as belonging to a racial group

racial profiling: practice of using race as a criterion for detaining someone on suspicion of having committed a crime

racial stratification: hierarchical arrangement in society by which different racial groups have different access to economic and social resources, power, and perceived social worth

racial tax: extra burden that people of color experience in living with racism

racialization: process by which a group comes to be defined as a race

racism: belief system that purports to justify racial inequality

redlining: practice of rating different residential areas in terms of their worthiness for mortgage lending based on race

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978): Supreme Court decision that colleges cannot use quotas in college admissions but can take race into account

reproductive labor: work people do to maintain and reproduce the labor force

reproductive politics: linkage between systems of power and intimate matters such as birth control, abortion, and pregnancy

residential segregation: pattern by which different racial and ethnic groups live apart from one another

sedimentation of racial inequality: structural disadvantages that have historically emerged to produce racial disadvantage

segmented assimilation: process that differentiates various dimensions of integration for immigrant groups

settler colonialism: process by which newcomers try to acquire land and property for the purpose of forming new communities even while overpowering indigenous (that is, native) communities

social capital: (see also cultural capital) access people have to networks and relationships that further their success

social death: process by which a person loses his or her humanity

spillover effect: consequences of imprisonment experienced after release, making it difficult for former prisoners to succeed

split labor market: theory analyzing the workforce as divided into two sectors—the primary labor market and the secondary labor market

steering: practice whereby real estate agents direct people of color away from neighborhoods that are predominantly White

stereotype: oversimplified set of beliefs about the members of a societal group

stereotype threat: pattern whereby a group’s performance is affected by the invocation of a group stereotype

structural diversity theory: theory that identifies the social forces that shape families, both historically and currently

structural unemployment: pattern of massive job loss caused by closing of particular industries

subprime mortgages: housing loans with a higher interest rate than the prime lending rate

symbolic annihilation: under and misrepresentation of certain groups of people in the media

symbolic ethnicity: allegiance to an ethnic group that is felt without having to incorporate ethnicity into one’s daily behavior

systemic racism: complex array of racial practices that divides social, economic, and political resources along racial lines

tracking: pattern of schooling that separates students into groups according to presumed ability

transnational families: families wherein members are dispersed across national borders

tri-partite society: society wherein people are divided into three racial categories

unemployment rate: percentage of people in a given population who are out of work based on official calculations

Uniform Crime Reports: annual FBI reports of crime rates based on number of crimes reported, crimes cleared, and persons arrested

urban underclass: those who are largely permanently unemployed and stuck at the absolute bottom of the economic system

Voting Rights Act (1965): federal law prohibiting discriminatory practices in voting

wealth: monetary value of all one’s assets minus outstanding debt, also called net worth

white privilege: social, cultural, and economic benefits that White people accrue in a society marked by racial hierarchy

white space: perception Black people have of places in which they feel marginalized when they are present

white supremacy: systemized consideration of White people as superior to people of color

xenophobia: fear of foreigners