1. Explain what happens to people and culture when politically organized societies break down.


2. Compare politically organized societies and tribal societies in reference to their vulnerability to collapse.


3. Compare the process of collapse in Mesopotamian, Harappan, and Andean civilizations and identify the likely causes.


4. Identify the principal scale thresholds that limited the size and sustainability of ancient empires.


5. Identify the system processes that limit the size and sustainability of large cultural systems, including diminishing returns, institutional functions and costs, and Parkinson’s Law.