1) The commercial world’s primary scale-related problems, which are perhaps the most important threats to sustainable cultural development:
- aoverpopulation and ignorance.
- bwar and disease.
- cimpoverishing concentrations of social power and the impossibility of perpetual growth in a finite world.
- dreligious tradition and technological backwardness.
2) Pareto optimality:
- agrowth stops when no one can get rich without making someone else poorer.
- bincreasing cultural incorporation of natural processes.
- ctribal cultures taking too much from natural ecosystems.
- dcultures that use more energy will displace lower-energy cultures.
3) The present rate of species extinctions, unprecedented since the Cretaceous, is best explained by:
- anatural climate cycles.
- bhabitat destruction and global warming caused by human activities.
- dsurvival of the fittest, natural selection, and other natural evolutionary processes.
4) The United States S corporations, as defined by the Internal Revenue Service, solve scale and power problems because:
- atheir revenues cannot exceed $1 billion.
- btheir assets cannot exceed $10 billion.
- cthey can be owned by no more than 100 shareholders resident individual persons, or families, or individually owned estates or trusts.
- dthey are not limited liability corporations, and are not “immortal.”
5) What small nation represents the Arcadia pathway to sustainable development?
- cPais Vasco
6) Scale theorists suggest that an optimum sized contemporary national society to meet individual objectives for humanization, sociability, prosperity, security, and expressive culture would not exceed:
- c15 million.
- d150 million.
7) If you compare Norway to the United States:
- aNorway ranks lower on the Environmental Performance Index than the U.S.
- bNorway has a national consensus on global warming, and thus favors strong international action to reduce carbon emissions.
- cNorway, like the U.S., has a high dependence on fossil fuels and finds it difficult to reach a political consensus on limiting carbon emissions.
- dNorway’s per capita ecological footprint is higher than the U.S. footprint.
8) What small nation represents the Agoria pathway to sustainable development?
- bCook Islands
- cPais Vasco
9) The cultural response to the crisis of capitalism from 1970 to 1980 followed by global elites and which led to the creation of the contemporary phase of globalization:
- aredistribute social power.
- bdownscale societies.
- cdistribute wealth and income up.
- dpromote human economic and social rights.
10) The power law (Log-normal) of distribution, which is the basis of the power and scale theory of elite-directed growth, shows that:
- athe rich get richer.
- bthe middle class have most of the wealth.
- cgrowth benefits the poor just as much as it benefits the rich.
- dmost people are rich.