1) Participant observation and the genealogical method are:
- aethnocentric, etic approaches of nineteenth-century evolutionists.
- bmeasuring skulls to show racial affiliations.
- cbasic modern ethnographic field techniques.
- dused to establish direction of cultural diffusion.
- athe belief that the "middle of the road" or the most central position is always the best.
- bevaluating other cultures in reference to one's own presumably superior culture.
- cthe belief that all cultures have intrinsic worth.
- dthe anthropological theory that ethnic groups are superorganic entities.
3) The highest levels of relative social equality and cultural stability are most likely to be found in which cultural world(s):
- dimperial and commercial.
4) Irreducible Minimum:
- athe amount of solar energy needed to maintain an ecological footprint.
- bthe number of significant sounds in a language.
- cthe culturally defined standard of material needs for food, clothing, and shelter.
- dthe number of individuals that can interact in a face-to-face social group.
5) How a society organizes social power is a very important cultural variable because:
- aonly men have social power.
- bexcept for chimpanzees, no other non-human primates have social power.
- conly political-scale cultures can be said to have social power.
- dthe organization of social power limits the scale of society and shapes all aspects of culture.
6) Mitrochondrial Eve analysis:
- ameasures skulls to show racial affiliations.
- btraces all humans to Africa.
- ctraces all humans to Polynesia.
- dsays Homo sapiens evolved in several different regions at approximately the same time.
7) Commercially organized socio-cultural systems:
- apotentially encompass the entire world.
- bthe largest politically autonomous social unit seldom exceeds 500 people.
- care based on subsistence economies with reciprocal exchanges.
- dfirst appeared 8,000 years ago.