1) Participant observation and the genealogical method are:
- aethnocentric, etic approaches of nineteenth-century evolutionists.
- bmeasuring skulls to show racial affiliations.
- cbasic modern ethnographic field techniques.
- dused to establish direction of cultural diffusion.
2) Irreducible Minimum:
- athe amount of solar energy needed to maintain an ecological footprint.
- bthe number of significant sounds in a language.
- cthe culturally defined standard of material needs for food, clothing, and shelter.
- dthe number of individuals that can interact in a face-to-face social group.
- athe belief that the "middle of the road" or the most central position is always the best.
- bevaluating other cultures in reference to one's own presumably superior culture.
- cthe belief that all cultures have intrinsic worth.
- dthe anthropological theory that ethnic groups are superorganic entities.
4) Mitrochondrial Eve analysis:
- ameasures skulls to show racial affiliations.
- btraces all humans to Africa.
- ctraces all humans to Polynesia.
- dsays Homo sapiens evolved in several different regions at approximately the same time.
5) The highest levels of relative social equality and cultural stability are most likely to be found in which cultural world(s):
- dimperial and commercial.
6) Commercially organized socio-cultural systems:
- apotentially encompass the entire world.
- bthe largest politically autonomous social unit seldom exceeds 500 people.
- care based on subsistence economies with reciprocal exchanges.
- dfirst appeared 8,000 years ago.
7) How a society organizes social power is a very important cultural variable because:
- aonly men have social power.
- bexcept for chimpanzees, no other non-human primates have social power.
- conly political-scale cultures can be said to have social power.
- dthe organization of social power limits the scale of society and shapes all aspects of culture.