1) Intervillage conflict in Amazonia is driven by:
- aecological imperative to conquer new hunting territory.
- bpersonal motives.
- cquest for political conquest.
- dfear of forest demons.
2) Amazonian garden sites are routinely abandoned because of:
- achronic intervillage feuding.
- black of formal political leadership.
- cdisease and insect infestation.
- dweeds and declining yields.
3) In comparing total consumption of the biological product of their respective territories between Americans and the Asháninka:
- aeach society takes about the same proportion of their biological product.
- bthe Asháninka take much more, because they rely so heavily on nature, and are highly self-sufficient.
- cAmericans take more than their territory produces, because they rely on global trade and fossil fuels.
- dAmericans take much less than their territory produces, because their territory is so large.
4) Parallel cousins:
- aMBD, FZD
- bMZD, FBD
- cMMB, FFZ
- dMMZ, FFB
5) The availability of protein is an important ecological factor limiting the size of villages in Amazonia, but the significance of protein is mediated by cultural factors such as:
- athe absence of writing meant that Amazonian peoples could not maintain the environmental knowledge needed to increase protein production.
- bwithout metal tools Amazonian peoples could not hunt and fish effectively.
- cpeople preferred to live in large villages regardless of the cost.
- dleisure and household autonomy were more important than large villages.
6) Manioc tubers:
- aare used primarily as a fish poison.
- bare all inedible, but supply valuable fiber, body paint, and hallucinogenic drugs.
- ccan be prepared as flour, bread, or beer when properly processed.
- donly "sweet manioc" can be eaten.
7) The Asháninka and Matsigenka:
- aforced to spend almost every waking moment in getting and preparing food, because their technology is so limited.
- bmen and women do exactly the same tasks.
- cthere is a roughly equitable gender division of productive labor, with plenty of leisure for both men and women.
- dwomen spend much more time at productive tasks than men, and because of this enjoy little leisure.
8) Tropical rainforest is especially important for humanity because:
- ait contains the richest soil in the world.
- bit is remarkably young in geological age.
- cthe terrestrial forest ecosystem is especially rich in large wild game protein.
- dit is rich in biodiversity and is one of the world’s most biologically productive ecosystems.
9) What has been called the "male supremacy complex" includes the following culture traits:
- aIroquois kinship, trading partnerships, and shamanism.
- bmanioc gardening, shamanism, and territoriality.
- cshifting cultivation, hunting, and fishing.
- dselective female infanticide, "war," patrilocality, and polygyny.
10) A common theme underlying many Amazonian tribal myths is:
- athe opposition between nature and culture.
- bthe maintenance of social equality.
- climiting the political power of aspiring politicians.
- dthe problem of balance between population and resources.
11) The high biological productivity of Amazonia can in part be attributed to:
- atemperate climate with cool, dry winters.
- bwarm, wet tropical climate.
- cwide seasonal fluctuation in temperature combined with abundant rainfall.
- da rainforest composed largely of small herbaceous plants.
12) A headman in Amazonian village society:
- ais normally a powerless coordinator.
- bcan force anyone to do anything against their will.
- ccollects taxes and tribute.
- dheads the village ancestor cult.