1) Amazonian garden sites are routinely abandoned because of:
- achronic intervillage feuding.
- black of formal political leadership.
- cdisease and insect infestation.
- dweeds and declining yields.
2) In comparing total consumption of the biological product of their respective territories between Americans and the Asháninka:
- aeach society takes about the same proportion of their biological product.
- bthe Asháninka take much more, because they rely so heavily on nature, and are highly self-sufficient.
- cAmericans take more than their territory produces, because they rely on global trade and fossil fuels.
- dAmericans take much less than their territory produces, because their territory is so large.
3) A headman in Amazonian village society:
- ais normally a powerless coordinator.
- bcan force anyone to do anything against their will.
- ccollects taxes and tribute.
- dheads the village ancestor cult.
4) A common theme underlying many Amazonian tribal myths is:
- athe opposition between nature and culture.
- bthe maintenance of social equality.
- climiting the political power of aspiring politicians.
- dthe problem of balance between population and resources.
5) The Asháninka and Matsigenka:
- aforced to spend almost every waking moment in getting and preparing food, because their technology is so limited.
- bmen and women do exactly the same tasks.
- cthere is a roughly equitable gender division of productive labor, with plenty of leisure for both men and women.
- dwomen spend much more time at productive tasks than men, and because of this enjoy little leisure.
6) Intervillage conflict in Amazonia is driven by:
- aecological imperative to conquer new hunting territory.
- bpersonal motives.
- cquest for political conquest.
- dfear of forest demons.
7) Parallel cousins:
- aMBD, FZD
- bMZD, FBD
- cMMB, FFZ
- dMMZ, FFB
8) The high biological productivity of Amazonia can in part be attributed to:
- atemperate climate with cool, dry winters.
- bwarm, wet tropical climate.
- cwide seasonal fluctuation in temperature combined with abundant rainfall.
- da rainforest composed largely of small herbaceous plants.
9) Tropical rainforest is especially important for humanity because:
- ait contains the richest soil in the world.
- bit is remarkably young in geological age.
- cthe terrestrial forest ecosystem is especially rich in large wild game protein.
- dit is rich in biodiversity and is one of the world’s most biologically productive ecosystems.
10) What has been called the "male supremacy complex" includes the following culture traits:
- aIroquois kinship, trading partnerships, and shamanism.
- bmanioc gardening, shamanism, and territoriality.
- cshifting cultivation, hunting, and fishing.
- dselective female infanticide, "war," patrilocality, and polygyny.
11) The availability of protein is an important ecological factor limiting the size of villages in Amazonia, but the significance of protein is mediated by cultural factors such as:
- athe absence of writing meant that Amazonian peoples could not maintain the environmental knowledge needed to increase protein production.
- bwithout metal tools Amazonian peoples could not hunt and fish effectively.
- cpeople preferred to live in large villages regardless of the cost.
- dleisure and household autonomy were more important than large villages.
12) Manioc tubers:
- aare used primarily as a fish poison.
- bare all inedible, but supply valuable fiber, body paint, and hallucinogenic drugs.
- ccan be prepared as flour, bread, or beer when properly processed.
- donly "sweet manioc" can be eaten.