1) East African ethnic groups such as the Nuer, Dinka, and Maasai:
- aare discreet, territorially-based, politically organized tribes led by chiefs.
- bare strictly defined by language and religion.
- chave no formal political organization, but are territorially fixed by the location of cattle sacrifice shrines.
- dare often defined by context in relation to other groups.
2) The most important subsistence utilization of cattle by East African cattle peoples is probably:
3) Subsistence pastoralists manage their herds in order to maximize:
- athe number of male animals.
- bthe number of female animals.
- cthe total number of animals.
- dthe weight and condition of individual animals.
4) Anthropologists who examined gender roles in African pastoral societies concluded that:
- awomen had virtually no control over household affairs.
- bwomen owned and managed all the livestock.
- cmen and women played complementary, but not totally equitable, roles within the household.
- dwomen dominated village and tribal politics.
5) Who takes the largest share in livestock tasks in African cattle societies:
- aunmarried males age 12 to 34.
- bmarried elders 35 and older.
- cmarried women.
- dunmarried girls.
6) The African food production system based on pastoralism and farming probably arose some:
- a2,000 years ago.
- b5,000 years ago.
- c10,000 years ago.
- d40,000 years ago.
7) In comparison with mobile foragers in the game-rich savanna regions of East Africa, pastoralism:
- asupports lower human population densities, but means greater leisure and stability.
- bsupports greater human population densities, but means more work and instability.
- csupports the same population density, while increasing leisure and stability.
- dsupports the same population density, while increasing social equality.
8) Perhaps the most important explanation for the remarkable resilience of East African pastoralism in the face of external political and economic influences is:
- across-cutting memberships and divided loyalties.
- bthe coercive political power of Leopard-Skin Chiefs.
- cthe religious power of the priests operating within the ancestor cults.
- dthe age class system.
9) Upon close inspection, the Nuer segmentary lineages described by Evans-Pritchard:
- aformed discrete localized groups, but were not strictly patrilineal.
- brecruited members strictly according to patrilineal descent, but did not form strictly localized groups.
- cdisplayed an emic reality that corresponded surprisingly closely to Evans-Pritchard's etic account.
- dprobably were not emic realities in the way that Evans-Pritchard's etic model suggested.
- aa transfer of valuables between male heads of families to formalize a new marriage.
- byoung men provide services to their in-laws.
- can economic transaction between bride and groom to publicly announce their marriage.
- dmakes women chattels to be bought and sold by men.