1) Subsistence pastoralists manage their herds in order to maximize:
- athe number of male animals.
- bthe number of female animals.
- cthe total number of animals.
- dthe weight and condition of individual animals.
2) East African ethnic groups such as the Nuer, Dinka, and Maasai:
- aare discreet, territorially-based, politically organized tribes led by chiefs.
- bare strictly defined by language and religion.
- chave no formal political organization, but are territorially fixed by the location of cattle sacrifice shrines.
- dare often defined by context in relation to other groups.
- aa transfer of valuables between male heads of families to formalize a new marriage.
- byoung men provide services to their in-laws.
- can economic transaction between bride and groom to publicly announce their marriage.
- dmakes women chattels to be bought and sold by men.
4) Anthropologists who examined gender roles in African pastoral societies concluded that:
- awomen had virtually no control over household affairs.
- bwomen owned and managed all the livestock.
- cmen and women played complementary, but not totally equitable, roles within the household.
- dwomen dominated village and tribal politics.
5) Perhaps the most important explanation for the remarkable resilience of East African pastoralism in the face of external political and economic influences is:
- across-cutting memberships and divided loyalties.
- bthe coercive political power of Leopard-Skin Chiefs.
- cthe religious power of the priests operating within the ancestor cults.
- dthe age class system.
6) In comparison with mobile foragers in the game-rich savanna regions of East Africa, pastoralism:
- asupports lower human population densities, but means greater leisure and stability.
- bsupports greater human population densities, but means more work and instability.
- csupports the same population density, while increasing leisure and stability.
- dsupports the same population density, while increasing social equality.
7) Who takes the largest share in livestock tasks in African cattle societies:
- aunmarried males age 12 to 34.
- bmarried elders 35 and older.
- cmarried women.
- dunmarried girls.
8) The most important subsistence utilization of cattle by East African cattle peoples is probably:
9) Upon close inspection, the Nuer segmentary lineages described by Evans-Pritchard:
- aformed discrete localized groups, but were not strictly patrilineal.
- brecruited members strictly according to patrilineal descent, but did not form strictly localized groups.
- cdisplayed an emic reality that corresponded surprisingly closely to Evans-Pritchard's etic account.
- dprobably were not emic realities in the way that Evans-Pritchard's etic model suggested.
10) The African food production system based on pastoralism and farming probably arose some:
- a2,000 years ago.
- b5,000 years ago.
- c10,000 years ago.
- d40,000 years ago.