1) Franz Boas:
- awas an evolutionist who relied on the comparative method.
- bwas a cultural materialist.
- cworked hard to eliminate racist theories and ethnocentrism from anthropology.
- dwas a nineteenth-century British anthropologist who described Australian aborigines as mental children.
2) According to psychological anthropologist Pascal Boyer, supernatural beliefs are perpetuated because:
- atribal people are mentally underdeveloped and effectively childlike.
- bthey help us manage other people and enforce morality.
- cshamans are insane.
- dspirits and demons are entirely human.
3) The generally superior dental health usually enjoyed by tribal peoples in comparison with industrial population can be attributed to:
- agood diet and use of natural anti-cavity herbal medicines.
- bincreased tooth wear and absence of refined carbohydrates.
- cnatural selection.
- dmystical supernatural powers and crystal therapy.
4) From an anthropological perspective, the shamanic state of consciousness is best understood as:
- amagical thinking.
- ba waking dream or lucid trance.
- cacute schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder.
- dparanoid delusions or hysteria.
5) The "Neolithic Paradox" identified by Levi-Strauss refers to the difficulty of explaining:
- awhy technological development seemingly stabilized after the scientific achievements of the Neolithic, until formal science was established.
- bdream experiences and death in the absence of writing, formal science, and an established priesthood.
- cthe invention of agriculture given the achievements of mobile foraging.
- dthe origins of sedentary living and social inequality.
6) There is broad consensus among medically trained observers that shamanistic healers:
- aactually have no special skills for treating real psychiatric disorders, injuries, or other illnesses, although they can handle sorcery cases.
- bcan successfully treat broken bones but not psychiatric disorders.
- ccan successfully treat a variety of psychiatric complaints using ritual techniques, and injuries and illnesses using herbal remedies.
- dcan successfully treat psychiatric complains, but have no empirically effective means of treating other injuries and illnesses.
7) A balanced assessment of the anthropological record suggests that people living in relatively independent tribal societies:
- awere in fact superior human beings living idyllic lives in Eden-like innocence just like the "noble savages" described by the first European explorers to reach the New World.
- bwere perfectly egalitarian and in perfect balance with nature, although they were sometimes selfish and cruel.
- cenjoyed generally healthy and vigorous lives if they reached adulthood, although life expectancy was probably lower than in fully industrialized countries.
- dwere more quarrelsome and homicidal than urban people, and were chronically ill, but their comfortable nudity and superior longevity made them true "noble savages."
8) According to Levy-Bruhl, "prelogical" thought was based on the "Law of Participation," which:
- aheld that things which were once part of someone could still influence that person even after they were separated.
- bignored contradictions, assuming that something could be two things at once.
- cused a limited set of signs ordered into structured relationships to help people understand reality while providing aesthetic satisfaction.
- dfollowed logical mental processes basically like our own, but operating at the cognitive level of pre-operational children.