1) According to psychological anthropologist Pascal Boyer, supernatural beliefs are perpetuated because:
- atribal people are mentally underdeveloped and effectively childlike.
- bthey help us manage other people and enforce morality.
- cshamans are insane.
- dspirits and demons are entirely human.
2) There is broad consensus among medically trained observers that shamanistic healers:
- aactually have no special skills for treating real psychiatric disorders, injuries, or other illnesses, although they can handle sorcery cases.
- bcan successfully treat broken bones but not psychiatric disorders.
- ccan successfully treat a variety of psychiatric complaints using ritual techniques, and injuries and illnesses using herbal remedies.
- dcan successfully treat psychiatric complains, but have no empirically effective means of treating other injuries and illnesses.
3) According to Levy-Bruhl, "prelogical" thought was based on the "Law of Participation," which:
- aheld that things which were once part of someone could still influence that person even after they were separated.
- bignored contradictions, assuming that something could be two things at once.
- cused a limited set of signs ordered into structured relationships to help people understand reality while providing aesthetic satisfaction.
- dfollowed logical mental processes basically like our own, but operating at the cognitive level of pre-operational children.
4) A balanced assessment of the anthropological record suggests that people living in relatively independent tribal societies:
- awere in fact superior human beings living idyllic lives in Eden-like innocence just like the "noble savages" described by the first European explorers to reach the New World.
- bwere perfectly egalitarian and in perfect balance with nature, although they were sometimes selfish and cruel.
- cenjoyed generally healthy and vigorous lives if they reached adulthood, although life expectancy was probably lower than in fully industrialized countries.
- dwere more quarrelsome and homicidal than urban people, and were chronically ill, but their comfortable nudity and superior longevity made them true "noble savages."
5) The generally superior dental health usually enjoyed by tribal peoples in comparison with industrial population can be attributed to:
- agood diet and use of natural anti-cavity herbal medicines.
- bincreased tooth wear and absence of refined carbohydrates.
- cnatural selection.
- dmystical supernatural powers and crystal therapy.
6) Franz Boas:
- awas an evolutionist who relied on the comparative method.
- bwas a cultural materialist.
- cworked hard to eliminate racist theories and ethnocentrism from anthropology.
- dwas a nineteenth-century British anthropologist who described Australian aborigines as mental children.
7) The "Neolithic Paradox" identified by Levi-Strauss refers to the difficulty of explaining:
- awhy technological development seemingly stabilized after the scientific achievements of the Neolithic, until formal science was established.
- bdream experiences and death in the absence of writing, formal science, and an established priesthood.
- cthe invention of agriculture given the achievements of mobile foraging.
- dthe origins of sedentary living and social inequality.
8) From an anthropological perspective, the shamanic state of consciousness is best understood as:
- amagical thinking.
- ba waking dream or lucid trance.
- cacute schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder.
- dparanoid delusions or hysteria.