1) The "great divide" between domestic-scale societies and chiefdoms was crossed when:
- apeople first began to farm.
- bmobile foragers first settled down in permanent villages.
- cautonomous villages surrendered political autonomy to a paramount chief.
- dintervillage conflict first began.
2) Complex chiefdoms were constructed by:
- aa handful of people who successfully manipulated the legitimizing power of cosmology to create compulsive political economies.
- ba natural evolutionary process that benefited everyone equally.
- can inevitable, irreversible growth and development process that benefited most people.
- da democratic majority responding to popular demands for a better way of life in an island environment.
3) According to scale and power theory of elite-directed growth:
- agrowth in the scale of societies is natural, inevitable, and continuous.
- bgrowth is an elite-directed process that concentrates power and disperses cost.
- cgrowth is a democratic process that benefits everyone equally.
- dgrowth is a democratic process that benefits the majority and is paid for by the elite.
4) As in Aboriginal Australia, the most important organizing principle of domestic life on Tikopia was:
- cpolitics and economics.
5) The feathered cloaks worn by the Hawaiian chiefs were:
- apart of the political economy used to mark elite status and keep potential rivals loyal.
- bproduced by the chiefs themselves as a demonstration of their personal mana and leisure affluence.
- cobtained by means of long perilous voyages to remote Polynesian outliers.
- dproduced by autonomous villagers as part of the subsistence economy.
6) Polynesia, before the arrival of Europeans, could be characterized as:
- aa complex mix of language, culture, and physical type.
- bphysically and linguistically Melanesian.
- cphysically and linguistically Micronesian.
- da well-defined area with a common language, culture, and physical type.
7) Traditional history and the archaeological record for Tikopia suggest that over the 3,000 years since the island was first settled:
- apopulation growth was a continuous problem, which may have contributed to intergroup conflict and emigration.
- bpopulation stability, peace, and tranquility was the rule until missionaries arrived on the island in 1911.
- coccasional food shortages due to natural disasters seems to have been the only problem to disturb the tranquility of the blissful islanders.
- dby 1911 it was clear that subsistence intensification had reached a point that it was no longer possible to increase food production to support further population growth.
8) Polynesian status systems:
- awere based solely on ascription and thus rigid and static.
- bwere based entirely on age, sex, and personal characteristics.
- cwere concerned entirely with the abstract goal of maintaining cohesion for the society as a whole.
- dcombined ascription and achievement and thus promoted status rivalry.
9) In striking contrast to the situation on Tikopia, the high chiefs of Hawaii:
- aconsidered themselves to be hereditary representatives of important deities.
- bemployed special assistants to carry out their directives.
- ccould impose tabus to restrict use of local resources.
- dhad completely arbitrary life or death powers over their subjects.
10) Commoners constituted about what percent of the Hawaiian kingdom:
- a5 percent.
- b25 percent.
- c75 percent.
- d98 percent.
11) Given the level of fish productivity in the coral reef ecosystem, it is likely that:
- amost islanders would have had great difficulty meeting their protein needs without the use of domesticated animals such as pigs and chickens.
- breef size probably had no significance, since most fish had to be obtained from the open ocean.
- cprotein was not a limiting factor for most Pacific islands.
- delaborate processing techniques were required to extract vegetable protein from coconuts.
12) Perhaps the most critical factor limiting the ability of Pacific islands to permanently support a human population:
- bnative plants and land mammals.
- copen ocean fishery.
13) In the Hawaiian kinship terminological system:
- across-cousins are distinguished from parallel cousins.
- beveryone in ego’s generation is brother and sister.
- ceveryone in ego’s generation is a cousin.
- deveryone in ego’s generation is mother and father.