1) Perhaps the most critical factor limiting the ability of Pacific islands to permanently support a human population:
- bnative plants and land mammals.
- copen ocean fishery.
2) Commoners constituted about what percent of the Hawaiian kingdom:
- a5 percent.
- b25 percent.
- c75 percent.
- d98 percent.
3) The feathered cloaks worn by the Hawaiian chiefs were:
- apart of the political economy used to mark elite status and keep potential rivals loyal.
- bproduced by the chiefs themselves as a demonstration of their personal mana and leisure affluence.
- cobtained by means of long perilous voyages to remote Polynesian outliers.
- dproduced by autonomous villagers as part of the subsistence economy.
4) Polynesian status systems:
- awere based solely on ascription and thus rigid and static.
- bwere based entirely on age, sex, and personal characteristics.
- cwere concerned entirely with the abstract goal of maintaining cohesion for the society as a whole.
- dcombined ascription and achievement and thus promoted status rivalry.
5) According to scale and power theory of elite-directed growth:
- agrowth in the scale of societies is natural, inevitable, and continuous.
- bgrowth is an elite-directed process that concentrates power and disperses cost.
- cgrowth is a democratic process that benefits everyone equally.
- dgrowth is a democratic process that benefits the majority and is paid for by the elite.
6) The "great divide" between domestic-scale societies and chiefdoms was crossed when:
- apeople first began to farm.
- bmobile foragers first settled down in permanent villages.
- cautonomous villages surrendered political autonomy to a paramount chief.
- dintervillage conflict first began.
7) Polynesia, before the arrival of Europeans, could be characterized as:
- aa complex mix of language, culture, and physical type.
- bphysically and linguistically Melanesian.
- cphysically and linguistically Micronesian.
- da well-defined area with a common language, culture, and physical type.
8) Complex chiefdoms were constructed by:
- aa handful of people who successfully manipulated the legitimizing power of cosmology to create compulsive political economies.
- ba natural evolutionary process that benefited everyone equally.
- can inevitable, irreversible growth and development process that benefited most people.
- da democratic majority responding to popular demands for a better way of life in an island environment.
9) As in Aboriginal Australia, the most important organizing principle of domestic life on Tikopia was:
- cpolitics and economics.
10) In the Hawaiian kinship terminological system:
- across-cousins are distinguished from parallel cousins.
- beveryone in ego’s generation is brother and sister.
- ceveryone in ego’s generation is a cousin.
- deveryone in ego’s generation is mother and father.
11) Traditional history and the archaeological record for Tikopia suggest that over the 3,000 years since the island was first settled:
- apopulation growth was a continuous problem, which may have contributed to intergroup conflict and emigration.
- bpopulation stability, peace, and tranquility was the rule until missionaries arrived on the island in 1911.
- coccasional food shortages due to natural disasters seems to have been the only problem to disturb the tranquility of the blissful islanders.
- dby 1911 it was clear that subsistence intensification had reached a point that it was no longer possible to increase food production to support further population growth.
12) Given the level of fish productivity in the coral reef ecosystem, it is likely that:
- amost islanders would have had great difficulty meeting their protein needs without the use of domesticated animals such as pigs and chickens.
- breef size probably had no significance, since most fish had to be obtained from the open ocean.
- cprotein was not a limiting factor for most Pacific islands.
- delaborate processing techniques were required to extract vegetable protein from coconuts.
13) In striking contrast to the situation on Tikopia, the high chiefs of Hawaii:
- aconsidered themselves to be hereditary representatives of important deities.
- bemployed special assistants to carry out their directives.
- ccould impose tabus to restrict use of local resources.
- dhad completely arbitrary life or death powers over their subjects.