1. Compare the ancient Mesopotamian and Andean empires and Pacific Island chiefdoms, highlighting the most important points of contrast related to scale of society.


2. Define the state and civilization in comparison with tribes and chiefdoms and discuss the relationship between size of society, cultural complexity, and the distribution of social power.


3. Evaluate the theory that civilizations originated as an elite-directed process designed to concentrate social power rather than as a natural, inevitable evolutionary process.


4. Use evidence from Mesopotamia and the Andes to assess the interconnections between technology, long-distance trade, population, environment, and human decision making in the development of large-scale, complex societies.


5. Describe and compare the four social ranks of Ur III and the Inca Empire, referring to social function, the distribution of social power, and costs and benefits.


6. Describe and compare the religious system of Ur III and the Inca Empire.


7. Evaluate the evidence for tyranny, oppression, and exploitation in Mesopotamian and Andean civilizations.