1) The archaeological record from ancient Mesopotamia shows that the first chiefdoms, temples, and small administrative hierarchies:
- ajust happened to develop by chance.
- bwere created in a process of democratic decision-making by tribal elders seeking to create a better life for their children.
- cwere constructed by very creative warrior herdsmen from Central Asia.
- dwere constructed by opportunistic elites.
2) Excavations at the archaeological site of Abu Hureyra on the upper Euphrates River revealed that people changed their subsistence from wild to cultivated plants:
- avirtually overnight, probably within a single season.
- bwithin a decade.
- cgradually over 2,500 years.
- dvery gradually, over 25,000 years.
3) Analysis of surviving clay tablets and other archaeological evidence suggests that during Dynastic times, Mesopotamian city states such as Ur were:
- aruled exclusively by peace-loving secular kings.
- borganized around a temple-palace bureaucracy that combined both military and religious leadership.
- cdirected by a highly democratic acephalus agromanagerial despotism based on human sacrifice at central places.
- dcontrolled by warrior-merchants who used market mechanisms to distribute strategic rations.
4) Anthropologist Julian Steward's pioneer multilinear evolution interpretation of the development of early civilizations emphasized:
- athe unique creativity of particular peoples in a challenge and response situation.
- bpredictable causal sequences involving environment, technology, and population.
- cpositive feedback loops within a complex causal network.
- dagromanagerial despotism.
5) Like the Hawaiian and Mesopotamian kings, the Inca emperors expanded their social power by:
- arelying exclusively on direct physical threats and intimidation, backed up by a powerful standing army.
- blavish generosity, in which they distributed luxury goods to everyone in the population, regardless of their social status.
- ccreating separate and balanced economic, political, military, and ideological power structures, in effect institutionalizing heterarchy, and decentralizing power.
- dasserting a symbolic connection between themselves, the fertility of nature, and the general well-being of society.
6) The large scale mobilization of labor in the service of the state was based on two important principles of interaction:
- aceque lines and huaca shrines.
- bstaple economy and wealth economy.
- cextreme endogamy and extreme exogamy.
- dayni reciprocity and mita rotation.
7) Cylinder seals in ancient Mesopotamia were:
- acarried by all citizens to record their payments of the bala tax.
- ba form of money, and could be easily subdivided.
- cportable devices to measure the barley rations.
- didentity cards that attested to the rank, authority, and responsibility of officials.
8) As a cultural and geographic concept, the "Near East" includes:
- aIraq, Iran, Anatolia, and the "Fertile Crescent."
- bthe regions occupied predominantly by speakers of modern Arabic.
- cIndia and Iran.
- dthe Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, and Indus valleys as the homelands of great civilizations.
9) The ancient city-states such as Mesopotamia:
- adrew their support from peasant villages scattered over a vast region.
- brequired extreme endogamy and extreme exogamy.
- cwere produced exclusively by temple priests for religious purposes.
- dwere relatively self-sufficient, localized systems of economic elites and poor dependents.
10) The Andes Mountains are an especially important geographic feature because they are:
- avery high and run north and south.
- bvery old and highly eroded, with remarkably stable climate regimes.
- cvery low and run east and west.
- dof moderate elevation for tropical latitudes and have experienced no tectonic uplift in the past 500,000 years.
11) Social conditions in the Ur III empire could be characterized as “oppression” because the elite:
- alived in the biggest houses.
- bhad multiple wives.
- cwere the only ones who could drink beer made from barley.
- doverpowered the majority with cultural institutions, beliefs, and practices that maintained unequal access to productive land and labor.
12) The quipu was used primarily for:
- acensus records.
- bastronomical mathematics.
- csacred temple liturgical ritual.
- dgenealogical records.