1. Compare the basic organization of Chinese and Hindu civilization with the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, the Andes, and Hawaii, identifying parallel developments and points of contrast.

 

2. Explain how tribal leaders could use shamanism, clans, and lineages to transform tribes into chiefdoms and states and make themselves divine rulers.

 

3. Identify common patterns underlying the origin of chiefdoms and states in China, South Asia, Mesopotamia, the Andes, and Hawaii.

 

4. Explain how religious, or moral, belief and practice helped the Chinese nobility integrate the empire, focusing specifically on the Confucian Great Tradition.

 

5. Distinguish between Great Tradition and Little Tradition cultures in China, referring to their respective distinctive features, and explain how and why each is reproduced. Relate each of these cultures to the hierarchy of urban places.

 

6. Describe how labor-intensive preindustrial Chinese agriculture was able to support 500 million people, making comparisons with capital-intensive U.S. production systems and the land-extensive shifting cultivation system in tribal Amazonia.

 

7. Describe the distribution of social power in village-level China in comparison with tribal villages and explain why Chinese poverty might be attributed to exploitation rather than overpopulation.

 

8. Describe the formation and structure of Chinese families and households and discuss how the dynamics of domestic life shape the relations between men and women, young and old.

 

9. Explain the relationship between language, Great Tradition, and political organization in South Asia and neighboring geographic regions.

 

10. Compare the major stages of South Asian cultural development in comparison with developments in Mesopotamia, China, and the Andean region.

 

11. Outline the major cultural organizational features of Hindu kingdoms and empires in comparison with Mesopotamia, China, and the Andean region.

 

12. Make specific comparisons between ancient Hindu social organization, gender relations, and religious belief and practice and these cultural features in other ancient civilizations and contemporary national societies.

 

13. Outline the defining features of the Hindu caste system and describe how food, marriage, and service transactions encode caste identity, explaining how Hindu cosmology and ritual practice support the rank order of Hindu society.