1) Ancestor worship in China was functionally associated with:
- aa distinct temple priesthood and the absence of an institutionalized clan and lineage system.
- begalitarian redistribution of strategic resources.
- dcentrally controlled market exchange.
2) Samsara, a key feature of Hindu ideology, refers to:
- athe fertility god.
- bthe food cycle from raw to waste.
- cthe endless cycle of death and rebirth experienced by the human soul.
- dthe circle of power commanded by the divine king.
3) The legal system operating in the early Hindu kingdom:
- atreated all peoples equally, regardless of social rank, religion, or economic status.
- bgave ritual priority and economic advantage to the upper ranks.
- cfavored and protected women regardless of social rank.
- dfavored and protected lowest ranked individuals, regardless of religion or gender.
4) The jajmani system is:
- athe ritual order in which food is given and received between castes.
- bwhen low ranked women marry equal or higher ranked men.
- cwhen low ranked individuals endanger higher ranked individuals by touch.
- dan interdependent division of labor between castes.
5) The rise of early Hindu civilization can probably be attributed to:
- bpopulation pressure.
- cenvironmental circumscription.
- dpolitical process.
6) The Li chi, or the "Book of Rites":
- adealt with dynastic history.
- bspecified formal duties and rituals between social classes, kin, and spouses.
- cwas concerned with divination by scapulimancy.
- dspelled out the ideals of statecraft to be followed by the "Sage King" and all bureaucrats.
7) Hindu religious images:
- amust have the definite and unique form of the one divine reality.
- bhave exclusively non-representational, formless shapes.
- chave different forms, or diverse manifestations of the divine, both representational and non-representational.
- dare empty idols.
8) The underlying religious basis of the Shang state was:
- athe supernatural power of the village shaman.
- bbelief that the king was the exclusive channel through his ancestors to the high god responsible for the welfare of people and nature.
- cspirit possession by shamanic specialists.
- dage grades and life cycle rituals.
9) The Chinese agricultural strategy was:
- acultivate all land with equal intensity.
- bapply human labor intensively to lands that yield the greatest return.
- chighly extensive shifting cultivation of a limited range of high yield crops.
- dmaximum use of animal traction and production of animal protein for maximum efficiency.
10) An important reason for a Chinese family to adopt a daughter for their son to later marry:
- adaughters were more valuable than sons.
- bwomen had important ritual responsibilities.
- cwomen did not own lineage property.
- dthis practice saved expensive bridewealth expenses.
11) The process by which elites constructed the first Chinese kingdoms suggests that:
- asome form of a politically organized tribe invariably precedes the state.
- bregional groups sharing a common language and culture are created by the missionaries of a state church.
- cexpansive rulers create discrete tribes by politically consolidating autonomous local communities for administrative convenience.
- dstratified cultures preceded ranked cultures.
12) Chinese social organization was based on:
- amatrilineages or clans.
- bpatrilineages or clans.
- cnon-unilineal descent groups.
- dego-based kindreds.
13) A key aspect of the rise of the early Chinese state was:
- aglobal environmental changes at the end of the last ice age.
- bgenerous redistribution of rich agricultural land to the impoverished masses.
- cstimulus diffusion from Mesopotamia and the Andean region.
- dpolitical elite gaining control of the religious system in order to increase their wealth and power.
14) Harappan civilization was:
- aa Mesopotamian trade colony in the Indus valley.
- bthe earliest South Asian state in the Indus valley.
- cthe earliest Hindu kingdom on the fertile Gangetic plain.
- dthe first Islamic state on the Himalayan plateau.
15) The Hindu caste system emphasizes:
- asocial equality.
- bbalance with nature.
- chierarchy and ritual purity.
- dexogamy and complementary opposition.