• Identify and explain the five goals of sentencing.

• Describe three models of sentencing and identify key decisionmakers in each model of sentencing.

• Understand sentencing reforms which have limited judicial discretion in sentencing.

• Explain the impact of key Supreme Court decisions on the constitutionality of capital punishment.

• Identify changes in the rate of incarceration from 1970 to 2012 and know the contrast between the rates of incarceration for white and non-whites.

• Discuss changes in drug sentencing policies within the past twenty years, including the crack cocaine disparity in federal law and the impact of drug sentencing on the minority community.