• Recognize the origins of and goals of the penitentiary, explain why the penitentiary differed from earlier forms of punishment, and contrast the penitentiary with the later reformatory movement.

• Identify and describe different types of penal institutions within modern correctional systems.

• Define the concept of a “total institution” and give an example of a “status degradation ceremony” within the institution.

• Describe the “pains of imprisonment.”

• Contrast the “importation” and “deprivation” theory of inmate subcultures.

• Identify the status of prisoners’ rights within the institution.

• Name the key dilemmas facing correctional administrators today in the areas of health care, incarceration of women, and prison violence.