1. Describe the intentions of the reformers who invented penitentiary. How did the use of the penitentiary differ from previous forms of punishment?

2. Define and describe the separate and congregate system of confinement. Where was each practiced? What were the significant differences between these two? Which one was ultimately successful and why?

3. Describe the reformatory model of incarceration. What form of sentencing is associated with this era of penal reform?

4. Identify and describe the different types of institutions found with most state correctional systems.

5. What is a “total institution”? Define and illustrate the concept of a “status degradation ceremony” within the prison setting.

6. Describe the four key deprivations associated with imprisonment. Why does Sykes refer to these as the “pains” of imprisonment? Define the concept of “prisonization.”

7. Explain the importation theory of prison culture. Contrast this theory with the deprivation theory.

8. To what extent do prisoners have constitutional rights? Explain the “paradox of reform.”

9. Explain the relationship between overcrowding, race, and violence within the prison.

10. What are the health care challenges facing the modern prison?