1. Describe the origins of the probation function. Which Latin term does the word “probation” come from and what does it mean? Identify the primary goal of the founder of the probation function.

2. Describe the origins of the parole function. Which French term does the word derive from? Explain the “ticket of leave” practice.

3. Describe the two key functions of the probation officer’s job. Define the concept of role strain and explain why there is an inherent conflict within the probation officer’s job. Describe the key functions of the parole officer today. What is the job of the parole board?

4. Define standard conditions of probation and parole. What does “revocation” of parole or probation mean?

5. Identify the three distinct periods of expansion and development in community corrections. Identify the key goals for community corrections in each period.

6. What is diversion? What is the difference between “true” diversion and “formal” diversion? Explain the concept of net-widening. Explain why net-widening undermines achievement of the goals of community corrections.

7. What are “intermediate sanctions”? Describe the practice of ISP, boot camps, and DRCs. How do these sanctions differ from traditional probation or traditional incarceration?

8. Explain the distinctive goals of community and restorative justice programs compared to the intermediate sanctions movement and the diversion movement. What is community service and how is it related to the philosophy of restorative justice?

9. What is a “community court”? Demonstrate how the community court takes a problem-solving approach to crime.

10. Describe the key practices of restorative justice victim-offender mediation, family group conferencing, boards, and circles. Explain how these practices involve victims and the community in the justice process.