• Identify the five stages of the criminal justice process; describe the key processes that occur at each stage; and identify the discretionary decisions made by justice professionals at each stage of the process.

• Describe the wedding cake model of the criminal justice system and contrast with the justice funnel model.

• Contrast the assembly line model of justice and compare it to the obstacle course model of justice; identify the values that are associated with each of these models.

• Explain why discretion is central to the justice process and dilemmas are posed by criminal justice discretion.

• Demonstrate the impact of politics on policies of crime control and explain the concept of “expressive justice.”