• Explain the difference between rights that exist de jure and those which exist de facto.

• Describe why the Constitution has been referred to as “Sleeping Beauty.”

• Show how the Scottsboro case is an illustration of the “awakening of sleeping beauty.”

• Explain the legacy of under-protection and over-enforcement of the law for African Americans.

• Describe the pattern of under-enforcement of the law in the area of male violence against women.

• Identify at least two significant reforms in the criminalization of male violence.

• Present the historical changes to the laws of rape and intimate violence.

• Explain the response of the police and courts to violence against women.

• Describe the role of gender in relation to both crime and victimization.