1. Define the field of victimology.

2. In what sense is the criminal justice system “offense-focused” and “offender-driven”?

3. What is the process of “victim-blaming”? Why is this a common psychological reaction to victimization in our culture?

4. What is “secondary victimization”? Give examples where this might take place within the criminal justice system.

5. What are “victims’ rights” in the criminal justice process? Why are these important to victims? How do victims’ rights address the problem of secondary victimization?

6. How do victims’ rights differ from offenders rights for due process? Are victims’ and offenders’ rights in competition with one another? Why or why not?

7. What are the symptoms of PTSD? How can the criminal justice system respond effectively to the needs of victims with PTSD?

8. What is a “survivors mission”? Why is such a mission important for victims?

9. Define retributive justice. What are the three questions Howard Zehr believes are central to retributive justice?

10. Define restorative justice. What are the three questions Howard Zehr believes are central to restorative justice?

11. Compare the role of the victim in restorative justice and retributive justice.