• Describe the rules that regulate the use of lethal force by police.

• Explain why a code of silence exists within policing and why a “blue curtain” separates police from civilians.

• Explain the concept of the “working personality” within police and describe what features of police work contribute to this working personality.

• Illustrate the military model of policing and discuss the impact of the model on the incidence of police brutality.

• Explain why the modern police was invented in the cities of the nineteenth century.

• Describe the problem of patronage and corruption in nineteenth-century policing.

• Discuss the key elements of professionalism in policing and the impact of technology and militarization on police-community relations.

• Identify the three key functions of policing.

• Describe the philosophy of community policing and its impact on contemporary policing.