absolutist deviance: A perspective of deviance that argues that certain behaviors are inherently deviant regardless of context, times, and the diversity of the members of a society.
active shooting: A situation in which a shooting is in progress and an aspect of the crime may affect the protocols used in responding to and reacting at the scene of the incident.
affluenza: A term used to describe psychological problems that can afflict children from wealthy families.
agents of socialization: Sources of culture; they are people, groups, organizations, and institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to function properly in society.
aggravated assault: An attempt to purposely inflict serious bodily harm or injury to another.
alcohol (ethyl alcohol or ethanol): An intoxicating ingredient found in beer, wine, and liquor. It is produced via the fermentation process.
alcohol abuse: The pattern of drinking that results in harm to one’s health, interpersonal relationships, or ability to work.
alcoholism: A chronic and often progressive disease that includes problems controlling your drinking, being preoccupied with alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same effect (physical dependence), or having withdrawal symptoms when you rapidly decrease or stop drinking.
anabolic steroids: Drugs that resemble androgenic hormones such as testosterone.
application fraud: Occurs when an unauthorized person opens up a credit card account in another person’s name.
arson: Any willful or malicious burning or attempting to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc.
assault: An act of violence that creates an apprehension in another of an imminent harmful, unwanted, or offensive contact.
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A developmental disorder where there are significant problems with attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively.
autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A developmental disorder that in addition to affecting an afflicted person’s ability to socialize and communicate with others, can also result in restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities.
battery: The harmful or offensive touching of another.
Big Data: A term that describes any massive volume of both structured and unstructured data that is so large it is difficult to process and also has the potential to be mined (or hacked) for information.
Big Pharma: A term that encompasses the largest global corporations in the pharmaceutical industry.
binge drinking: A pattern of drinking that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels to 0.08—which typically equals 4 drinks for women and 5 drinks for men—in about 2 hours.
bipolar disorder (formerly known as manic depression): A chronic mental illness that is characterized by alternating periods of mood changes of elation and depression and causes changes in sleep, energy, thinking, and behavior.
blood doping: Introducing a surplus of one’s own blood into his or her body in hopes of improving performance, especially athletic performance.
body mass index (BMI): A method used to measure whether an individual weight is underweight, healthy weight, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese.
bootlegging: The unlawful production, sale, and transportation of alcoholic liquor without registration or payment of taxes.
born criminal: A person born with a predisposition to commit crime and social deviance.
breaching experiment: A quasi-experiment that seeks to examine people’s reactions to violations of commonly accepted social rules, or norms in order to shed light on the methods by which people construct social reality.
bribery: Involves the offering of money or gifts to a person in power, especially a public official in the discharge of his or her legal duties, in an effort to entice that public official to do something on behalf of the briber.
burglary (breaking and entering): The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft.
cannabis: The scientific name for marijuana; it is a category of psychoactive drugs that includes three different species: sativa, indica, and ruderalis.
cannibalism: The act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another member of the same species.
carrying capacity: The maximum feasible load just short of the level that would end the environment’s ability to support life.
catfish: The person who pretends to be someone they’re not and who creates false identities on social networking sites for deceptive purposes.
catfishing: Internet predators that fabricate online identities and entire social circles to trick people into emotional/romantic relationships over a long period of time.
claims making: The process of trying to convince the public and important officials that a particular issue or situation should be defined as a social problem.
climate change: A long-term change in the earth’s climate, especially due to shifts in average atmospheric temperatures.
collective conscience: The totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society forms a determinate system that has its own life.
collective violence: Violence committed by larger groups of individuals and political states.
computer hacker: A person who illegally gains access to a computer system in order to get information (e.g., data or top secrets), cause damage (e.g., deleting important files or stealing bank account numbers), or create havoc (e.g., releasing a virus in the network system).
computer hacking: The process of intentionally accessing a computer without authorization or exceeding authorized access.
corporate deviance: Acts of immense physical, financial, and moral harm committed by wealthy and powerful corporations no longer being constrained by government in their relentless pursuit of profits.
credit card fraud: A form of identity theft that involves the unauthorized taking of another’s credit card information for the purpose of charging purchases to the account or removing funds from it.
crime: Any deviant behavior or omission of behavior that violates a law of the land.
crimes of omission: The failure to act when called upon to do so either by law or by law enforcement representatives; such acts constitute an actus reus (Latin for “guilty act”).
criminal intent (in legal terminology, mens rea, or “guilty mind”): Varies by degree, ranging from willful conduct (the perpetrator had full intention to commit the crime, such as robbery, aggravated assault, and murder) at one extreme to negligence (meaning that the criminal act was not deliberate) at the other end.
culture: The shared knowledge, values, norms, and behavioral patterns of a given society that are passed on from one generation to the next, forming a way of life for its members.
culture of shamelessness: A term used to describe the phenomenon of changing cultural norms wherein behaviors that in the past would have elicited great shame and embarrassment are treated with indifference in contemporary society.
cyber child pornography: The sexually explicit content made available online in various formats including images, video files, video games, and streaming videos.
cyberbullying: The act of harassing someone online by sending or posting embarrassing photos/ videos or mean-spirited messages, including spreading rumors/gossip about a person, often done anonymously.
cyberharassment: Threatening or harassing electronic messages (e.g., emails, instant messages, blogs, and websites) designed to torment and harm the targeted person.
cyberscams, also referred to as Internet fraud: Crimes in which the perpetrator develops a scheme using one or more elements of the Internet in an attempt to defraud people with the goal of acquiring/stealing personal property, money, or any other asset by means of false representation, whether by providing misleading information or by concealment of information.
cyberstalking: The use of electronic forms of communication (e.g., social networking sites, e-mail, or smartphones) to track or harass a person.
cyclical unemployment: Occurs when there is not enough demand for goods and services in the market to provide enough employment opportunities for all who want to work.
deforestation: The clearing, or permanent removal, of the earth’s forests on a massive scale.
deinstitutionalization: The release of institutionalized individuals from institutional care (e.g., psychiatric hospital) to care, treatment, support, or rehabilitation primarily through community resources under the supervision of health care professionals or facilities.
dementia: A chronic disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and characterized by memory disorders, personality changes, and deterioration in cognitive function (e.g., impaired reasoning).
demonic possession: Refers to being under the power or influence of a demon or evil spirit to the point where one cannot control their mind or actions.
dependency: A state in which a person’s body has adjusted to regular use of a drug.
depressants: Drugs that sedate neurotransmission levels; they depress or lower the vital activities of the central nervous system.
depression: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest that can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems.
desnuda: Spanish for naked, nude, or ill-clothed.
developmental disorders: An umbrella term used to cover a number of chronic disabilities that affect the mental and/or physical development (e.g., receptive and expressive language, learning, and mobility) of the afflicted.
deviance: Any behavior that is labeled by some members of society, especially those in a position of authority or power, or specific subcultural groups, as an unacceptable violation of social norms and codes of morality that may elicit negative reactions from others.
deviant: A person who violates the social norms or cultural codes of morality.
differential association: A theory that proposes that through interaction with others, individuals learn their norms, values, and attitudes.
discouraged workers: Persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available for them.
dissociative disorders: Are characterized by an involuntary escape from reality highlighted by a disconnection between thoughts, identity, consciousness, and memory.
dissociative identity disorder: A psychological perspective that puts forth the notion that any given individual can possess multiple and distinct personalities.
dose: Refers to the quantity of a drug that has been prescribed by a doctor or recommended by the drug provider.
drinking problem: Occurs when alcohol consumption causes problems for the drinker.
drive-by shootings: The combined use of firearms and automobiles in a mobile attempt by assailants to kill targeted victims.
drug: Any natural or synthetic chemical substance that affects the functioning of the mind or body.
drug abuse: Persistent or sporadic excessive drug use with or without acceptable medical supervision.
drug abuser: A person who consumes drugs beyond the prescribed allotment or who endangers themselves or the public safety and welfare of others.
drunk driving: Operating a motor vehicle while one’s blood alcohol content is above the legal limit set by statute.
drunk shaming: A quasi-degradation ceremony that occurs when people become too drunk to defend themselves from a private or public shaming.
drunken comportment: The idea that people are not simply under the control of alcohol, but instead act as they have been taught to act when drunk.
e-waste: A popular, informal name for electronic products that have been deemed obsolete because they are outdated and are discarded.
ecosystem: The ecological network of interconnected and interdependent living organisms (plants, animals, and microbes) in union with the nonliving aspects found in their immediate community, including air, water, minerals, and soil.
enviromare: An environmentally produced nightmare that causes great harm to humanity and the physical environment.
environment: The totality of social and physical conditions that affect nature and humanity and their influence on the growth, development, and survival of organisms found in a given surrounding.
espionage: The act of spying or of using spies to obtain, deliver, or transmit secret or confidential information, especially regarding a government or business, without the target’s permission or knowledge.
ethics: Having the ability to distinguish between right and wrong courses of actions and the ability to understand the difference between the virtuous and the nonvirtuous aspects of human behavior.
extortion: The criminal behavior of trying to get money, property, or some other sort of favors from a person, entity, or institutions through coercive means.
felony murder: The killing of an individual(s) during the commission of a felony such as rape or robbery.
fetish: A strong desire or fixation for some object.
folkways: The conventional rules of everyday life that people follow almost automatically, such as holding a door open for the person behind you.
food neophobia: The fear of trying new foods.
forgery: The altering, copying, or imitating of something, without authority or right, with the intent to deceive or defraud by passing the copy of thing altered or imitated as that which is original or genuine.
formal shaming: Efforts used by formal entities to make the offender feel extreme guilt for violating a law or significant social norm.
formal social control (sometimes called external or direct social control): Regulation of behavior comes from exterior social control agents, such as law enforcement, the judicial system, the legislative system, and other authority figures.
freeganism (sometimes called “dumpster diving”): The anticonsumerist movement wherein people reclaim and eat food that has been discarded.
frictional unemployment: Stems from the temporary transitions that people take when graduating from college and looking for employment or when workers leave one job in search of a better one.
gender: Socially determined expectations placed on individuals because of their sexual category.
gender identity: The way in which a person conceives of their sexual self.
good mental health: Offers feelings of wellbeing, inner strength, emotional functionality, and the ability to cope and manage change and uncertainty.
greenhouse effect: The circumstances where the short wavelengths of visible light from the sun pass through the atmosphere, but the longer wavelengths of the infrared reradiation from the heated objects are unable to escape the earth’s atmosphere.
hallucinogens: A category of drugs (also known as psychedelics) that cause the user to perceive things differently than they actually are; they provide a profound sense of intensified sensory perception.
hazing: An all-encompassing term that covers silly, potentially risky, or degrading tasks as a means of initiating a person into a group, with or without the consent of the participants, that is required for acceptance by a group of full-fledged members.
hedonism: Seeking pleasure and attempting to avoid pain in one’s activities.
homelessness: People who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence.
homicide: The killing of one human being by another. Homicides can be criminal or noncriminal.
homophobia: An irrational and unreasoning fear of, aversion to, or antipathy toward members of the LGBTQ community manifested via prejudice, discrimination, and sometimes acts of violence and expressions of hostility.
honor codes: An example of informal social control wherein participants are expected to be trusted to voluntarily adhere to a set of ethical principles, ideals, rules, values and norms.
honor killings: The homicide of a female member of a family by her male family members because she has “dishonored” or shamed the family because of her behavior.
huffing: The inhaling of substances (e.g., spray paint, oven cleaners or gasoline) in an attempt to get “high.”
human cannibalism: The consuming of human flesh by another human.
human trafficking: The illegal trade of human beings, it is considered a modern version of slavery.
hydraulic fracturing: Commonly known as hydrofracking, or simply fracking, involves a controversial method of drilling for natural gas wherein hundreds of unidentified chemicals are used during the extraction process.
identity fraud: A crime in which a criminal uses a victim’s personal data through fraud or deception for economic gain or other deceitful purposes.
identity theft: The fraudulent appropriation and use of someone else’s personal identification information, personal data, or documents for the purpose of assuming that person’s name or identity in order to make transactions or purchases.
ideology: A set of beliefs, values, norms and doctrines that characterize a particular group, institution, organization or society.
illegal insider trading: Buying or selling a security, in breach of fiduciary duty or other relationship of trust and confidence, while in possession of material, nonpublic information about the security.
indecent exposure: The deliberate exposure in public or in view of the public by a person of a portion or portions of his or her body, causing others to be alarmed or offended.
infidelity: The act of behaving unfaithfully and cheating (e.g., sexual or emotional betrayal) on a spouse or significant other.
informal shamings: A type of social control that contains elements of moral indignation, shame, ridicule, stigmatism, and attempts to compromise the victim’s identity and self-esteem; they are used by people against others in an attempt to alter their behavior.
informal, or internal, social control: Methods used to regulate behavior through ideological or cultural manipulation.
inhalants: Include a variety of breathable substances, some legally prescribed and others that are common household or work products.
inner containments: Self-controls (e.g., self-concept, ego strength, tolerance of frustration, goal-directedness, and identification with lawfulness) that develop during the socialization process.
insider trading: The trading of securities or stocks by “insiders” with material, nonpublic information pertaining to significant, often market-moving developments to benefit themselves or others financially.
intellectual property: Includes a wide variety of products of the intellect (creations of the mind) that have commercial value, including copyrighted property such as literary or artistic works, and ideational property, such as patents, business methods, and industrial processes.
intellectual property rights (IPR) theft: The stealing of any intellectual property ranging from books, songs and movies to machine tools and pharmaceuticals.
interpersonal violence: Violence between individuals, individuals and groups, groups and individuals, and groups against groups.
intimate interpersonal violence: Acts carried out with the intention of, or perceived as having the intention of, physically or emotionally hurting one’s partner (in marriage, cohabitation, or dating); child; parent; sibling; or some other intimate person (e.g., close family member such as a niece or nephew, aunt or uncle, or grandparent).
labor force: The measure of the sum of the employed and unemployed persons in a society.
larceny-theft: The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another.
lasing: The act of pointing a laser at a specific object.
laws: Formalized norms, as determined by a political authority.
marine debris: Includes any form of manufactured or processed material discarded, disposed of, or abandoned in the marine environment.
mass extinction: An event that occurs when the planet loses more than three-quarters of its species in a geologically short interval of time, usually a few hundred thousand to a couple of million years.
mass shooting: An incident involving multiple victims of gun violence.
medical waste: Also known as health-care waste, includes waste generated by the health institutions, research institutions and laboratories, as well as waste originating from health care done at home (e.g., dialysis, insulin injection devices, and blood sugar test strips).
medicalization: The process of increasingly treating aspects of human life as medical problems rather than social problems.
memes: An idea, concept, activity, or catchphrase superimposed on a photo, often as a mimicry, from person to person via the Internet.
mental disorder: A mental or bodily condition marked primarily by insufficient organization of personality, mind, and emotions that impairs the normal functioning of the individual.
mental illness: A condition that impacts a person’s thinking, feeling, or mood and may affect his or her ability to relate to others and function on a daily basis.
modeling: Occurs by watching and listening to significant others and then copying their behaviors and attitudes.
moderate alcohol consumption: Up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men.
modes of adaptation: Manners in which individuals adjust to strain caused by anomic conditions.
morality: A code of conduct that includes ideals of proper and ethical behavior used to guide human behavior and to develop or maintain good character.
mores: Norms that constitute the basic moral judgments of a society, such as the taboos against incest, pedophilia, and cannibalism.
motor vehicle theft: The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle; a motor vehicle is defined as a self-propelled vehicle that runs on land surfaces and not on rails.
narcissism: A pattern of traits and behaviors that signify infatuation and obsession with one’s self, often to the exclusion of all others, and the egotistic and ruthless pursuit of one’s gratification, dominance, and ambition.
narcotics (also known as opioid pain relievers, opioids, painkillers, and analgesics): Are drugs designed to help people who are experiencing severe pain.
neurosis: A relatively mild personality disorder typified by excessive anxiety and social maladjustment.
nicotine: A toxic colorless or yellowish oily liquid alkaloid, water-soluble, that is the chief active ingredient of tobacco. It acts as a stimulant in small doses but in larger amounts blocks the action of autonomic nerve and skeletal muscle cells. It is also valued as an insecticide.
noncriminal homicides: Include excusable and justifiable homicide wherein the death of another person was not the result of wanton disregard, malice aforethought, premeditation, or during the commission of a felony.
nones: A term used by the Pew Research Center to describe Americans who have identified themselves as believing in “nothing in particular” when it comes to religious identification.
normative deviance: A focus on deviant behavior from the perspective that a social norm has to be violated in order for deviance to have occurred.
norms: Socially defined rules and expectations regarding human behavior.
obesity: Having a body mass index (BMI) score measuring between 30 and 40.
objective social problems: Harmful social situations or issues acknowledged to exist within society.
objectum sexuality: An orientation to love objects, including inanimate objects.
occupational crime: Deviant or criminal behavior committed during the course of one’s occupation for the purpose of seeking ill-gotten personal gain.
omnipresent: Present in all places at all times.
organized crime: Also known as syndicate crime, involves criminal activity committed by members of criminal enterprises that exist to operate profitable illicit enterprises (e.g., insurance fraud, counterfeiting, tax evasion, and money laundering).
outer containments: The social control agents found in society (e.g., law enforcement, the judicial systems, and others in a position of authority).
outsourcing: Occurs when a company moves its operations away from one market to another, generally to another country where labor and/or raw materials are cheaper.
parole: A common type of “aftercare” treatment program in that offenders who were incarcerated are released early but must meet a number of criteria while released in order to avoid being sent back to a detention or confinement facility.
performance-enhancing drugs: Are drugs used by people who hope to rehabilitate, gain muscle mass, run faster, and increase overall athletic performance.
physiognomy: Involves the study of faces and skulls and other physical features in order to reveal an individual’s natural disposition.
political crime: Refers to acts perpetrated by, or against, a government or state.
poor mental health: Generally expressed in terms of mental illness or mental disorder and refers to conditions that negatively impact a person’s ability to cope with everyday events or stressful situations.
pornography (more commonly known as porn): Words or images (generally found in books, magazines, photographs, film, art, and cyberspace) intended to cause sexual arousal.
positive deviance: Behaviors that violate a rule that other people find desirable that may or may not bring about positive consequences.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A mental health condition that’s triggered by a highly stressful or terrifying event either by experiencing it or witnessing it.
poverty: The lack of basic necessities, goods, or financial means of support.
power elites: The set of people with a disproportionate amount of influence over public policy who are found atop the major power structure of American society—business, military, and politics.
prescription drugs (also known as prescription medication or prescription medicine): Are pharmaceutical drugs that can only be legally obtained and consumed by means of a properly authorized person (e.g., a physician).
prevention strategies: The various techniques used to steer individuals away from the temptations of committing deviancy and crime and to keep them on the straight path toward law-abiding lifestyles.
primary groups: Those characterized by intimate face-to-face association and cooperation.
product recall: The process of retrieving defective products from consumers and providing those consumers with compensation (e.g., monetary compensation or product replacement).
property offenses: Involve offenses committed against the property of others and include such crimes as burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson, and vandalism.
prostitution: The act of offering one’s self for hire to engage in sexual relations of any kind.
psychoactive drug: A chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters the perceptions, cognition and/or moods of people who take it.
psychosis: A symptom or feature of mental illness that affects the mind and is typically characterized by dramatic changes in personality, impaired functioning, and a distorted or impaired relationship with reality.
psychotherapy: A general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other mental health provider.
public intoxication: An intoxicated or drugged person in a public place that is disturbing the public peace and order.
public nuisance: An act, condition, or thing that is illegal because it interferes with the rights of the public generally.
ransomware: A type of cyberscam that involves trying to extort money from individuals and business owners by infecting and taking control of the victim’s computer.
rape: The unlawful compelling of a person, or persons, through the use of physical force, or the threat of physical force, or duress to have unwanted vaginal, anal, and/or oral sex, without the consent of the victim.
reactivist deviance: A perspective of social deviance that takes into consideration the idea that deviance can be positive.
reinforcement: A term used in operant conditioning, referring to the manner in which behaviors are rewarded or punished with its consequence of strengthening or weakening a behavior in the future.
relativist deviance: The perspective on social deviance that examines the manner in which social norms are created and the people who create them.
revenge porn: The cybersharing of sexually explicit photos/videos of another person (generally an ex-lover or ex-friend) without their consent for the purpose of spiteful humiliation.
riot: A violent public disorder involving a large number of people assembled together and acting with a common intent—the wanton destruction of human life and/or property.
robbery: The completed or attempted theft, directly from a person, of property or cash by force or threat of force, with or without a weapon, and with or without injury.
schizophrenia: A severe mental disorder that interferes with a person’s ability to correctly interpret reality, to think clearly, manage emotions, make decisions, and relate to others.
scratchiti: A version of graffiti that involves using a sharp object like a knife to scratch painted surfaces, wood, and glass windows.
securities fraud: A type of serious white-collar crime in which a person(s) or company misrepresents information that investors use to make decisions.
self-directed violence: Violence in which the perpetrator and the victim are the same individual.
self-harm (also known as self-injury and/or self-mutilation): Occurs when a person purposively inflicts physical harm to self via such methods as self-cutting, head banging, self-biting, and self-scratching.
sex: A biological classification (e.g., male or female).
sexism: Behaviors, conditions, or attitudes that foster stereotypical social roles based on sexual identity and orientations and that lead to prejudice and discrimination against members of one sex due to preferential treatment for members of the offending sex.
sexting: The sending, receiving, or forwarding of sexually suggestive text messages that generally include sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude photos.
sexual assault: Any type of sexual contact or behavior that occurs without the explicit consent of the recipient including such behaviors as sexual intercourse, forcible sodomy, child molestation, incest, fondling, and attempted rape.
sexual deviance: Includes a wide range of unusual or abnormal forms of sexually related behaviors that are outside of the culturally and historically determined social norms and expectations of a society.
sexual deviant: A person who finds pleasure in and/or participates in acts of sexual deviancy.
sexual fetishism: The desire to engage in specific forms of sex-related activities that bring satisfaction to the participants.
sexual harassment: Any uninvited or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that tends to create an uncomfortable environment.
sexual orientation: A person’s physical, romantic, and emotional attraction to another person.
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Infections that are generally acquired via sexual contact with someone who has the infection.
simple assault: Acts of violence against a person that inflict less than serious bodily harm without a deadly weapon.
social construction of reality: The perspective that our world is a social creation, originating and evolving through our everyday thoughts and actions.
social control: The processes, formal or informal, used to prevent deviant behavior.
social deviance: The study of human deviant behavior within a social context.
social disorganization: Disruption or breakdown of the structure of social relations as the result of the contrasting values and norms of the established residents and the new values and norms of immigrants; the breakdown of social cohesion; high rates of unemployment; and a disregard for established social control agents (e.g., existing community leaders and law enforcement).
social problem: A social situation found in society that at least some people view as undesirable and/or harmful.
social stratification: A system for ranking members of a social system into levels with different or unequal evaluations.
socialization: A process of social development and learning that occurs as individuals interact with one another and learn about society’s expectations for acceptable behavior.
sociological imagination: The awareness that an individual’s private life is often influenced/shaped by the social environment and the existing societal forces.
spear phishing: A targeted e-mail scam sent from a fake account that looks familiar but is sent with the sole purpose of obtaining unauthorized access to sensitive data.
stalking: Involves the willful and repeated following, watching, and/or harassing of another person.
statistical deviance: That which is unusual, rare, or uncommon.
statutory rape: Any sexual contact with an underage person.
stigma: A mark of disgrace or dishonor.
stigmatized: Characterized or branded as disgraceful or ignominious.
stimulants: Drugs that increase alertness, accelerate heart rate, elevate the blood pressure, and speed up or overstimulate the user’s body by increasing one’s energy level.
street crime: An umbrella term used by sociologists, criminologists, and law enforcement agencies to describe criminal acts committed in public outdoor places, including the streets, playgrounds, shopping areas, business districts, and residential neighborhoods, including private homes, and encompasses violent offenses and property offenses.
structural unemployment: The mismatch of skills in the labor force to the composition of the local industry.
subculture: A category of people found within the greater society who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that distinguish them from the larger society.
subjective social problems: Social situations or issues acknowledged by segments of society as harmful.
suicide by cop (SBC): A situation where individuals deliberately place themselves or others at grave risk in a manner that compels the use of deadly force by police officers.
suppression strategies: Attempts by law enforcement and the full force of the law to forcibly end, dissolve, or prohibit criminal activities.
sustainability: The ability of the environment to hold, endure, or bear the weight of a wide variety of social and natural forces that may compromise its functionality.
swatting: The act of pranking or tricking an emergency service dispatcher (e.g., 911 operators) into deploying a SWAT unit to an unsuspecting victim’s home under false pretenses.
techniques of neutralization: Methods used by norm violators in their attempt to rationalize their deviant behaviors, thus freeing them from their commitment to societal values and norms.
technology: The branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and practical use of technical means to solve problems or invent useful tools.
terrorism: The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives.
theory: A statement that proposes to explain or relate observed phenomena or a set of concepts via a collection of interrelated statements and/or arguments that seek to described and explain cause-effect relationships.
thrivability: A cycle of actions that reinvest energy for future use and stretch resources further; it transcends sustainability by creating an upward spiral of greater possibilities and increasing energy.
tolerance: The repeated use of a drug over a period of time, which diminishes its effectiveness.
torture: The act of causing excruciating pain as a form of punishment or revenge or as a means of forcing someone to give up information or a confession.
treason: The offense of the betrayal of one’s own country by waging war against it or by consciously or purposely acting to aid its enemies.
unemployment: The condition of being jobless, looking for a job, and being available for work.
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones: Airborne devices controlled by “pilots” from the ground, sometimes, especially in the case of military use, autonomously following a preprogrammed mission.
unsafe products: Those products that cause undue or unexpected harm, including death, to those who use them.
utilitarianism: The idea of doing what is best for the greatest number of people.
vandalism: The willful or malicious destruction, damaging, or defacing of public or private property.
violence: The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation.
violent offenses: Involve offenses committed against other persons and include such crimes as homicide, robbery, assault and battery, and rape/ sexual assault.
war: A state or period of collective fighting between large groups or countries via the use of armed combat.
white collar crimes: Crimes that are typically nonviolent, nonstreet crimes committed by someone, generally a professional of high status, in commercial situations for financial gain.
working poor: Persons who spent at least 27 weeks in the labor force (either working or looking for work) but whose incomes still fell below the official poverty level.
workplace bullying: The repeated, health-harming mistreatment of one or more persons (the targets) by one or more perpetrators in the work environment.