1) Centralization of Congress
- adecreased steadily over the twentieth century.
- boccurred in the 1970s.
- cincreased in the 1990s.
- dhas remained unchanged since World War II.
2) Quantitative analysis on the passage of legislation shows that once one controls for a president’s public approval and congressional majority
- aDemocratic presidents are more effective than Republicans.
- bRepublican presidents are more effective than Democrats.
- cpresidents with congressional experience are more effective.
- dpresidents with the same political context perform the same.
3) Presidents are best advised to
- aspread legislative priorities across their whole term.
- bwait until they have more experience to pass important policies.
- cpass priorities quickly.
- drespond to events in real time rather than set priorities.
4) Regularly recommending a president’s legislative proposals to Congress
- ahas been common since the beginning.
- bhas been packaged in State of the Union addresses by recent presidents.
- cis usually ignored altogether by Congress.
- dhas usually been viewed as a violation of separation of powers.
5) Congressional party leaders are in weak positions to move members in the president’s direction.
6) The State of the Union has to be spoken in person before Congress.
7) Presidents are more likely to worry about short-term benefits to voters than members of Congress.
8) Most contemporary presidents continue to call special sessions in Congress as permitted by the Constitution.
9) Changes in Congress since the 1960s
- aclosed committee hearings to the public.
- bhave reduced turnover in congressional personnel.
- cfacilitate access from interest groups.
- ddisperse power through Congress more widely.
10) The text argues that which of the following elections were mandates?
- aLyndon Johnson in 1964
- bRichard Nixon in 1972
- cRonald Reagan in 1984
- dAll of the above