1) Investigation into the background of judges shows little difference in rulings among judges based on race, gender, and career trajectory.
2) The largest number of presidential appointments in the judiciary are in
- athe Supreme Court of the United States.
- bstate supreme courts.
- cfederal district courts.
- dfederal courts of appeals.
3) Which official is the immediate supervisor of litigation in the executive branch?
- aSecretary of justice
- bAttorney general
- cSupreme Court chief justice
- dSolicitor general
4) Which of the following is LEAST likely to lead to a vacancy in the Supreme Court?
5) In appealing cases to the Supreme Court, a presidential administration
- ais required to defend laws passed by Congress.
- busually bypasses lower courts.
- ccan refuse to defend legislation it views as unconstitutional.
- dis prevented from privately communicating with justices.
6) All of the following were upheld by courts during wartime EXCEPT
- ainterning Japanese Americans.
- bcensoring criticism of the government.
- csuspension of habeas corpus.
- dspending funds without congressional appropriation.
7) “Facilitator” presidents influence courts more by selection of judges than influencing those judges once appointed.
8) When public opinion opposes Supreme Court decisions, constitutional amendments often succeed in overriding the decisions.
9) When federal courts are interpreting a law passed by Congress and not the Constitution, the simplest way for Congress to respond to a disagreeable Supreme Court decision is to pass a new law.
10) Which of the following has most measurably increased in recent decades?
- aAge of judges appointed
- bPresidential screening for ideology
- cLength of confirmation process
- dUse of senatorial courtesy