1) Valence issues are risky instruments for presidents to increase their public approval.
2) Scholars find evidence for rally effects
- donly in defensive wars.
3) No president has maintained steady approval ratings for two terms.
4) Mail to the president
- ais answered by top-level aids.
- bis randomly sampled by the postmaster general.
- cis unrepresentative of broad public opinion.
- dmostly remains unanswered.
5) Rally events raise public approval of the president mainly because
- apresidents have the opportunity to look presidential.
- bthe president symbolizes the nation as a whole.
- cpeople don’t want to hurt success by opposing the president.
- dall of the above
6) When Nixon’s profanity was revealed in Watergate tapes, it conformed to voter opinions that politicians are unseemly.
7) Public reactions surprised the White House for all of the following EXCEPT
- aNixon’s decision to bomb Cambodia.
- bReagan’s tax cuts.
- cClinton’s proposal to lift the ban on homosexuals in the military.
- dTrump’s firing of James Comey.
8) Presidents Clinton, Bush, and Obama used polls most frequently to
- aevaluate whether to pursue their campaign promises.
- bdetermine policy priorities.
- crecruit potential volunteers.
- ddetermine how to frame policies for maximum popularity.
9) Which of the following is most likely to reduce a president’s approval?
- aA wide gap between expectations and performance
- bA natural disaster
- cInitiating a war
- dEntering office with an economy already in recession
10) Presidents deny they use polls to help make decisions.