1) Motivated reasoning produces a conscious tendency for people to see what they want to see.
2) Presidents rely on a single department as the sole source of information on some issues.
3) During the Korean War, each of Harry Truman’s advisors
- aurged him to unite all of Korea behind a sympathetic government.
- bexpected another advisor to discourage him from firing MacArthur.
- chad been following Korean events before World War II.
- drecommended firing MacArthur.
4) To maintain autonomous policy jurisdictions, federal departments tend to do all of the following EXCEPT
- aoppose each other’s projects.
- bfight to maintain or increase their budget.
- cwithhold information from related departments.
- dresist change.
5) Multiple advocacy runs the challenge of
- aentrenching hierarchies.
- bproducing groupthink.
- creducing access to the president.
- dincreasing staff conflict.
6) The chapter explains that because of parochialism, presidential appointments are likely to adapt the norms of the bureaucratic unit around them.
7) Trump consulted military leaders before issuing a prohibition on transgendered people serving in the military.
8) The chapter mentions all of the following as examples of presidents who dismissed or refused to meet with dissenting advisors EXCEPT
- aFranklin Roosevelt.
- bLyndon Johnson.
- cRichard Nixon.
- dBarack Obama.
9) Which of the following is an example of wishful thinking?
- aRearranging facts to fit a world view
- bPutting off confrontations
- cThe domino theory
- dAttacking the motives of one’s critics
10) Which of the following techniques is most commonly used to undermine a presidential aide or advisor?
- aPublic attacks
- bCriminal investigations
- cLeaks to the press
- dFace-to-face confrontations