• Articulate a continuum of graduated sanctions for youth offenders.

• Compare and contrast various correctional options.

• Describe the risk principle and its importance.

• Describe how disproportionate minority contact (DMC) is being addressed.

• Discuss the ways in which restorative justice can be used in conjunction with, or as an alternative to, the traditional juvenile justice process.

• Be familiar with key issues in residential placements, including mental health, victimization, education, and privatization.