• Describe the “child savers” and their mission.

• Describe the system of family-based social control.

• Explain how urbanization, immigration, and industrialization impact family-based social control.

• Contrast the social meaning of “childhood” in different eras.

• Identify the reasons for the emergence of “adolescence.”

• Identify the origins of the legal concept of parens patriae.

• Describe the evolution of parens patriae.

• Describe the origins of the child welfare system in the juvenile court.

• Apply the concept of intersectionality to the treatment of immigrants; youth of color; and girls in the early era of the juvenile justice system.