1) Democratic consolidation requires that
- aunion leaders do not influence the voting behavior of members.
- bmultiple failed attempts at democracy precede a successful transition.
- cno important political actors contemplate a return to dictatorship.
- ddiffering political factions consolidate into a two-party system.
- eleaders have the allegiance of the military.
2) Some experts believed that oppressive regimes were necessary for development because of their ability to
- alimit wages and labor unrest enough to attract private sector investment.
- braise literacy rates.
- cenlarge the middle class to increase consumerism and attract foreign investors.
- dpromote the development of labor unions.
- erestrict opposing political parties to promote stability.
3) How did the end of the Cold War affect the Third Wave?
- aThe breakup of the Soviet Union created more dictatorships.
- bThe United States no longer had to coddle dictators who had resisted Communism.
- cLatin American dictators no longer had allies in Eastern Europe.
- dFewer refugees in underdeveloped nations felt the need to migrate due to economic conditions.
- eThe United States lost influence in Eastern Europe.
4) The curse of oil refers to
- ahigh levels of pollution created by the petroleum industry.
- ba condition such that private-sector firms are more powerful than governments.
- cthe dependence of upper socioeconomic classes on nationalized petroleum firms.
- dthe costs of transporting petroleum products over long distances.
- ethe inability of most countries whose economies are dominated by oil exports to democratize.
5) Most new democracies that emerged after World War II
- aare Middle Eastern countries.
- bmodeled their government systems after those of their former colonial rulers.
- chold free but single-party elections.
- dare a by-product of failed communist revolutions.
- ehave economic power because of a wealth of natural resources.
6) According to Adam Przeworski, no democratic system in a country has ever fallen where
- aoil is the primary export.
- bper capita income exceeds $6,055 after adjustment for inflation.
- cthe rate of growth maintains a slow pace.
- dthe judicial system is independent of the executive branch.
- emilitary coups have ended totalitarian regimes.
7) The Third Wave refers to a transition to democracy in many nations, including which of the following?
- aThe Philippines and North Korea
- bAfrica and Australia
- cMexico and New Zealand
- disland nations in the Caribbean
- eSouth Africa and Brazil
8) Substantive democracy
- arequires that fair elections and government policies are accompanied by just policy outcomes.
- brefers to laws set by majority rule with no input from other groups.
- crequires that lower social classes receive such government benefits as free education and low-cost loans.
- ddoes not require freedom of the press if the state-run media is monitored by outside organizations.
- efalls outside mainstream views of democracy.
9) Between 1960 and 2000, what percentage of the world’s worst economic performers was overseen by nondemocratic governments?
- a38 percent
- b50 percent
- c67 percent
- d75 percent
- e95 percent
10) Which aspect of democracy is taken for granted in industrialized nations but not found in many developing nations?
- ahigh levels of civilian employment
- bmultiparty elections
- ccivilian control of the military
- dthe importance of natural resources
- ehigh literacy rates among all ages, in all income groups