1) According to Adam Przeworski, no democratic system in a country has ever fallen where
- aoil is the primary export.
- bper capita income exceeds $6,055 after adjustment for inflation.
- cthe rate of growth maintains a slow pace.
- dthe judicial system is independent of the executive branch.
- emilitary coups have ended totalitarian regimes.
2) Substantive democracy
- arequires that fair elections and government policies are accompanied by just policy outcomes.
- brefers to laws set by majority rule with no input from other groups.
- crequires that lower social classes receive such government benefits as free education and low-cost loans.
- ddoes not require freedom of the press if the state-run media is monitored by outside organizations.
- efalls outside mainstream views of democracy.
3) The Third Wave refers to a transition to democracy in many nations, including which of the following?
- aThe Philippines and North Korea
- bAfrica and Australia
- cMexico and New Zealand
- disland nations in the Caribbean
- eSouth Africa and Brazil
4) Democratic consolidation requires that
- aunion leaders do not influence the voting behavior of members.
- bmultiple failed attempts at democracy precede a successful transition.
- cno important political actors contemplate a return to dictatorship.
- ddiffering political factions consolidate into a two-party system.
- eleaders have the allegiance of the military.
5) Between 1960 and 2000, what percentage of the world’s worst economic performers was overseen by nondemocratic governments?
- a38 percent
- b50 percent
- c67 percent
- d75 percent
- e95 percent
6) The curse of oil refers to
- ahigh levels of pollution created by the petroleum industry.
- ba condition such that private-sector firms are more powerful than governments.
- cthe dependence of upper socioeconomic classes on nationalized petroleum firms.
- dthe costs of transporting petroleum products over long distances.
- ethe inability of most countries whose economies are dominated by oil exports to democratize.
7) Which aspect of democracy is taken for granted in industrialized nations but not found in many developing nations?
- ahigh levels of civilian employment
- bmultiparty elections
- ccivilian control of the military
- dthe importance of natural resources
- ehigh literacy rates among all ages, in all income groups
8) How did the end of the Cold War affect the Third Wave?
- aThe breakup of the Soviet Union created more dictatorships.
- bThe United States no longer had to coddle dictators who had resisted Communism.
- cLatin American dictators no longer had allies in Eastern Europe.
- dFewer refugees in underdeveloped nations felt the need to migrate due to economic conditions.
- eThe United States lost influence in Eastern Europe.
9) Most new democracies that emerged after World War II
- aare Middle Eastern countries.
- bmodeled their government systems after those of their former colonial rulers.
- chold free but single-party elections.
- dare a by-product of failed communist revolutions.
- ehave economic power because of a wealth of natural resources.
10) Some experts believed that oppressive regimes were necessary for development because of their ability to
- alimit wages and labor unrest enough to attract private sector investment.
- braise literacy rates.
- cenlarge the middle class to increase consumerism and attract foreign investors.
- dpromote the development of labor unions.
- erestrict opposing political parties to promote stability.