1) The identity of any particular ethnic group is
- ausually based on a social construction as opposed to a primordial or inherent characteristic.
- bdefined strictly in terms of religious beliefs.
- cbased on common enemies in prior conflicts.
- dalways free from embellishments created by politicians and intellectuals.
- ethe strictly uniform character of a common group of people.
2) Increasing levels of higher education within a developing country
- aalways lead to greater understanding between and among ethnic groups.
- boften produce a class of ethnically chauvinistic professionals and intellectuals who foment hostilities.
- clead to intellectual groups that are sympathetic to their prior colonial rulers.
- dare rarely found in countries with warring ethnic factions.
- edo not occur until ethnic strife and divisions have been settled.
3) Between 1989 and 2004, how many of the 118 military conflicts in the world were conflicts within a single nation-state between warring ethnic factions?
4) Groups such as Turkish Kurds and Malaysian Chinese have politically relevant national identities because
- athey have maintained their “mother tongues.”
- btheir socioeconomic classes hold enormous wealth.
- cthey maintain a presence in their country’s armed forces.
- dcoup d'etat attempts gave them unusual influence.
- ethey control large regions of their respective countries.
5) Successful secession movements in the developing world
- aoccur with relatively little bloodshed.
- bhave not occurred in Africa.
- coccur only through the intervention of developed nations.
- dhappen very rarely.
- ealways achieve a goal of greater autonomy.
6) In the occasional cases where outside forces successfully impose solutions in intractable ethnic conflicts, which of the following is usually true?
- aIntervening power included Canada and United States.
- bIntervening power is a neighboring country that does not have a strategic interest in the country in which it intervenes.
- cIntervening power is a neighboring country that has a strategic interest in the country in which it intervenes.
- dIntervening power is not a neighboring country and has no ties to the country in which it intervenes.
- eIntervening power is not a neighbor and does not have strategic interest in the country in which it intervenes.
7) Democracy in developing countries has fared best
- awhere new immigrants created a common culture.
- bin nations with strong ties to the United States.
- cin the period immediately after World War II.
- dwhere one group has maintained an intellectual ruling class.
- ein nations led by a religious ruler.
8) Which factor most influences the likelihood of tensions between religious groups?
- aone group having recently split from the other
- bneither group having any political clout
- cone group's spiritual leader residing in exile
- deach group believing it is the only true faith
- ethe failure of the United Nations to recognize the group’s distinct ethnic entity
9) In almost all cases of enforced hierarchy,
- aupward mobility through the class-race hierarchy is impossible.
- blighter-skinned ethnicities are the largest demographic group.
- cgrassroots political movements have little impact on creating change.
- done ethnicity predominates in the politics and another ethnicity in the economy.
- ethose higher up the social ladder tend to be lighter skinned.
10) In a consociational democracy,
- aone group has a high level of control over other groups’ affairs.
- bno group holds veto power over government policies.
- cleaders of the major ethnic groups form a ruling coalition at the national level.
- dcivil service employment is reserved for minority groups.
- eindividual groups employ their own military forces.