1) In a consociational democracy,
- aone group has a high level of control over other groups’ affairs.
- bno group holds veto power over government policies.
- cleaders of the major ethnic groups form a ruling coalition at the national level.
- dcivil service employment is reserved for minority groups.
- eindividual groups employ their own military forces.
2) The identity of any particular ethnic group is
- ausually based on a social construction as opposed to a primordial or inherent characteristic.
- bdefined strictly in terms of religious beliefs.
- cbased on common enemies in prior conflicts.
- dalways free from embellishments created by politicians and intellectuals.
- ethe strictly uniform character of a common group of people.
3) Which factor most influences the likelihood of tensions between religious groups?
- aone group having recently split from the other
- bneither group having any political clout
- cone group's spiritual leader residing in exile
- deach group believing it is the only true faith
- ethe failure of the United Nations to recognize the group’s distinct ethnic entity
4) In the occasional cases where outside forces successfully impose solutions in intractable ethnic conflicts, which of the following is usually true?
- aIntervening power included Canada and United States.
- bIntervening power is a neighboring country that does not have a strategic interest in the country in which it intervenes.
- cIntervening power is a neighboring country that has a strategic interest in the country in which it intervenes.
- dIntervening power is not a neighboring country and has no ties to the country in which it intervenes.
- eIntervening power is not a neighbor and does not have strategic interest in the country in which it intervenes.
5) Increasing levels of higher education within a developing country
- aalways lead to greater understanding between and among ethnic groups.
- boften produce a class of ethnically chauvinistic professionals and intellectuals who foment hostilities.
- clead to intellectual groups that are sympathetic to their prior colonial rulers.
- dare rarely found in countries with warring ethnic factions.
- edo not occur until ethnic strife and divisions have been settled.
6) In almost all cases of enforced hierarchy,
- aupward mobility through the class-race hierarchy is impossible.
- blighter-skinned ethnicities are the largest demographic group.
- cgrassroots political movements have little impact on creating change.
- done ethnicity predominates in the politics and another ethnicity in the economy.
- ethose higher up the social ladder tend to be lighter skinned.
7) Groups such as Turkish Kurds and Malaysian Chinese have politically relevant national identities because
- athey have maintained their “mother tongues.”
- btheir socioeconomic classes hold enormous wealth.
- cthey maintain a presence in their country’s armed forces.
- dcoup d'etat attempts gave them unusual influence.
- ethey control large regions of their respective countries.
8) Successful secession movements in the developing world
- aoccur with relatively little bloodshed.
- bhave not occurred in Africa.
- coccur only through the intervention of developed nations.
- dhappen very rarely.
- ealways achieve a goal of greater autonomy.
9) Democracy in developing countries has fared best
- awhere new immigrants created a common culture.
- bin nations with strong ties to the United States.
- cin the period immediately after World War II.
- dwhere one group has maintained an intellectual ruling class.
- ein nations led by a religious ruler.
10) Between 1989 and 2004, how many of the 118 military conflicts in the world were conflicts within a single nation-state between warring ethnic factions?