1) With zipper-style quotas, each political party
- aagrees to not run a candidate in every other election.
- bruns only women candidates in specific elections.
- cnominates candidates who have no chance of election, by tacit agreement with other parties.
- dmust meet its quota of female candidates and also alternate male and female candidates.
- egerrymanders districts to ensure the election of women candidates.
2) In the short run only, modernization and the spread of world capitalism
- acause dramatic gains in a country’s Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) rank.
- bcause more women to migrate to rural areas.
- cexpand union membership opportunities for women.
- dare seen as unnecessary in more egalitarian societies.
- ehave frequently widened the gender gap.
3) The fact that a region’s culture sets baseline boundaries for most women is most evident in
- afundamentalist Islamist countries.
- bLatin American countries.
- cSouth Asian countries.
- dformer colonies of developed nations.
- enations with large urban centers.
4) In many quota systems, women must constitute at least 30 percent of their party’s list of parliamentary candidates. The number reflects
- athe percentage of women in most European countries’ legislatures.
- bthe critical mass of female MPs needed to produce women-friendly legislation.
- cthe maximum number of women that many governments are willing to have in the legislature.
- dan arbitrary number that the United Nations adopted as a standard.
- ethe percentage of women in an average developing country.
5) Before the end of World War II, how many of the twenty Latin American countries allowed women to vote?
6) From 1995 to 2015, the number of women in parliament worldwide
- aremained unchanged.
- bbecame nearly equal in developed and developing nations.
- cnearly doubled.
- dbecame smaller.
- ewas unaffected by democratic reforms.
7) The feminist movement has spread from the world’s economically advanced democracies into the developing world
- aonly when religious and cultural restrictions have been abolished.
- bprimarily through military interventions.
- cin South and East Asia.
- dthrough a return to rural lifestyles, which require shared work.
- ethrough media coverage and the demonstration effect.
8) Which region has the highest women’s literacy rate?
- aSouth Asia
- bCentral and East Asia
- cSub-Saharan Africa
- dthe Arab states
- eLatin America and the Caribbean
9) Which of the following statements is correct?
- a“Partly free” democracies fare just as well in Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) scores as liberal democracies.
- bWomen’s groups have had no effect on regime change in developing nations.
- cDemocracies generally promote gender equality more effectively than authoritarian regimes.
- dEastern Europe’s transition from Communism to democracy increased the number of women elected to parliament.
- eGrassroots and NGO groups have had little influence on gender equality.
10) The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is an index comparing men and women on
- apolitical and economic empowerment, participation in the work force, and measures of health.
- bpercentage of seats in the legislative body.
- cliteracy rates, access to information, and travel opportunities.
- dability to influence the media and national policies.
- econcentration of wealth in a nation.