1) Advocates of agrarian reform argue that
- asmallholders are generally more efficient than larger landlords.
- bpeasant landholders farm their plots inefficiently.
- cpeasant landholders’ living standards are independent of productivity concerns.
- dpeasants have the skills to operate harvesting machinery just like large-scale farmers.
- efamily labor is more expensive than capital investment in the long run.
2) The year 2008 marked what milestone in human history?
- aMore people immigrated to Third World countries than to developed nations.
- bSome LDCs banned the expansion of cities because of population worries.
- cFactory farms outnumbered peasant farms for the first time.
- dThe upper socioeconomic classes in Asian developing nations lost political power.
- eCity populations exceeded rural populations for the first time.
3) A developing country with a high degree of income inequality will usually have
- aa low crime rate.
- ba high crime rate.
- cfewer violent crimes against women.
- dhigher levels of white collar crime.
- efar fewer instances of government crime or corruption.
4) What estimated percentage of people in Sub-Saharan Africa lives in substandard housing?
5) The term culture of poverty refers to
- aan image of the lower classes in the media used to manipulate them.
- ba general feeling of empowerment among formerly powerless individuals.
- ca lack of class consciousness, economic and political organization, and long-term aspirations.
- dactive participation among the lower classes in the political process.
- ea widespread perception that social change is needed.
6) In many developing countries, radical politics are less likely to threaten stability than
- aincreasing numbers of illiterate young adults.
- ban expanding middle class accompanied by no reductions in absolute poverty.
- curban crime and drug usage.
- da lack of trust in how the media report political events.
- eincreased international trade with nations that were former aggressors.
7) Peasants tend to be wary of radical change because
- athey often distrust outside values because of their religious or traditional belief systems.
- bthey prefer having less power in government.
- cthey trust only institutions that purchase goods they create.
- dtheir lives never improve with regime changes.
- ethey are pressured by conservative religious leaders.
8) Which of these is NOT a general feature of politics of low-income neighborhoods in LDCs?
- aSquatter communities started through organized invasion of unoccupied land
- bThe poor usually have demands that call for major redistribution of economic resources.
- cThe urban poor may ask for basic services such as water and electricity.
- dThe urban poor may demand titles to their plots to build homes.
- eEstablished neighborhoods often request a medical clinic or a market.
9) The urban poor often supports the political aspirations of
- aright-wing political candidates.
- bcharismatic populists or moderate leftists.
- curban guerillas.
- dantiunion activists.
- ecandidates who promise only long-term rewards.
10) According to the World Bank, the informal sector may generate as much as ____ percent of the gross domestic product of LDCs.