1) Which of the following can be a consequence of corruption?
- aunequal public access to services
- binability among small entrepreneurs to maintain businesses
- cdecreased economic development
- dpublic apathy toward civic participation
- eall of the above
2) Which of the following is NOT a common aspect of anti-corruption initiatives?
- adetecting existing corruption
- bstrengthening civil society groups
- cchanging attitudes about corruption, both of the public and officials
- dpardoning public officials that were involved in existing corruption
- estrengthening the media
3) Which of the following is an observation from Transparency International’s 2018 Corruption Perception Index?
- aChina and Afghanistan are among the 20 least corrupt countries in the world.
- bThe United States ranked first in the list of least corrupt countries in the world.
- cApproximately a third of the top 20 least corrupt countries are from the Developing World.
- dSingapore is the only developing country in the top ten least corrupt countries in the world.
- eA substantial number of the most corrupt countries are high-income countries.
4) Political patronage is
- awhen civil servants are required to submit reports that detail all monetary transactions.
- ba form of condescension used by government officials against their rivals.
- cwhen citizens have to pay bribes to government officials after they are elected.
- dgovernment officials providing favors to supporters.
- eexcessive use of negative ads during a political campaign.
- arefers to support of civilian anti-corruption initiatives by political candidates.
- brefers to government officials providing favors to supporters using public resources.
- cis a modern phenomenon in which foreign governments provide direct aid to individuals in peripheral states.
- dis a form of corruption that exists only in the Developing World.
- erefers to any method used to mobilize support for a political cause.
6) Which of these features contributes to widespread, high-level corruption in South Korea?
- achecks and balances within the government
- bunequal income distribution
- cgovernment officials with salary below the poverty line
- dconcentration of natural resources within the country
- eclose ties between the government and chaebols
7) Which of these is NOT true of Equatorial Guinea?
- aIt is Africa’s third largest oil producer.
- bIts per capita income is among the lowest in Africa.
- cMost of its population lives in abject poverty.
- d20 percent of its children die before the age of five.
- eIts per capita income is the highest in Africa.
8) According to Transparency International, these countries are most likely to engage in bribe-paying abroad.
- aChina, South Korea, New Zealand, and Denmark
- bItaly, Taiwan, China, and Malaysia
- cFrance, Bhutan, Pakistan, and Slovenia
- dFinland, Paraguay, Japan, and Australia
- eArgentina, Canada, South Korea, and Germany
9) Endemic corruption can be limited by
- aincreasing the openness of bidding and transactions between private sector entities and the government.
- bincreasing government regulation and licensing required to maintain a business.
- cincreasing the number of members in the legislature.
- dincreasing the salary of civil servants and police so that they can support their families.
- eincreasing the salary of high-level government employees.
10) Which of the following circumstances makes corruption more likely in a developing country?
- aweak government capacity
- belecting a female head of government
- crelatively equal income distribution
- dminimal licensing and permits for new entrepreneurs
- erespect for freedom of press