1) In almost all cases of enforced hierarchy,
- aupward mobility through the class-race hierarchy is impossible.
- blighter-skinned ethnicities are the largest demographic group.
- cthose higher up the social ladder tend to be lighter skinned.
- dgrassroots political movements have little impact on creating change.
- eone ethnicity predominates in the politics and another ethnicity in the economy.
2) Democracy in developing countries has fared best
- ain nations with strong ties to the United States.
- bin the period immediately after World War II.
- cwhere one group has maintained an intellectual ruling class.
- din nations led by a religious ruler.
- ewhere new immigrants created a common culture.
3) Successful secession movements in the developing world
- ahappen very rarely.
- boccur with relatively little bloodshed.
- chave not occurred in Africa.
- doccur only through the intervention of developed nations.
- ealways achieve a goal of greater autonomy.
4) In a consociational democracy,
- aone group has a high level of control over other groups’ affairs.
- bleaders of the major ethnic groups form a ruling coalition at the national level.
- cno group holds veto power over government policies.
- dcivil service employment is reserved for minority groups.
- eindividual groups employ their own military forces.
5) The identity of any particular ethnic group is
- ausually based on a social construction as opposed to a primordial or inherent characteristic.
- bdefined strictly in terms of religious beliefs.
- cbased on common enemies in prior conflicts.
- dalways free from embellishments created by politicians and intellectuals.
- ethe strictly uniform character of a common group of people.
6) Which factor most influences the likelihood of tensions between religious groups?
- aone group having recently split from the other
- bneither group having any political clout
- cone group’s spiritual leader residing in exile
- deach group believing it is the only true faith
- ethe failure of the United Nations to recognize the group’s distinct ethnic entity
7) Increasing levels of higher education within a developing country
- aoften produce a class of ethnically chauvinistic professionals and intellectuals who foment hostilities.
- balways lead to greater understanding between and among ethnic groups.
- clead to intellectual groups that are sympathetic to their prior colonial rulers.
- dare rarely found in countries with warring ethnic factions.
- edo not occur until ethnic strife and divisions have been settled.
8) Groups such as Turkish Kurds and Malaysian Chinese have politically relevant national identities because
- atheir socioeconomic classes hold enormous wealth.
- bthey maintain a presence in their country’s armed forces.
- ccoup d’etat attempts gave them unusual influence.
- dthey control large regions of their respective countries.
- ethey have maintained their “mother tongues.”
9) Between 1989 and 2004, how many of the 118 military conflicts in the world were conflicts within a single nation-state between warring ethnic factions?
10) In the occasional cases where outside forces successfully impose solutions in intractable ethnic conflicts, which of the following is usually true?
- aIntervening power included Canada and United States.
- bIntervening power is a neighboring country that does not have a strategic interest in the country in which it intervenes.
- cIntervening power is a neighboring country that has a strategic interest in the country in which it intervenes.
- dIntervening power is not a neighboring country and has no ties to the country in which it intervenes.
- eIntervening power is not a neighbor and does not have strategic interest in the country in which it intervenes.