1) Powers suggested that personality was controlled through
- aa hierarchy of feedback loops.
- bparallel neural networks that communicated through transpositioning themselves.
- cfeedback loops that operated in parallel at a single level.
- dan intricate communication system that rested on serial processing.
2) Feedback about the self can be regarded as
- anegative information about the self.
- blooping from the other to the self.
- cinformation about a current feature or condition of the self.
- dnone of the above.
3) Hypnosis was discovered by ________ who thought it had to do with ________.
- aMesmer; magnetism
- bCharcot; hysteria
- cBraid; sleep
- dFreud; repression
4) Repression involves
- athe motivated nonperception or forgetting of unpleasant material.
- bthe turning back of maturation, such that the individual becomes more immature.
- cthe seeing in others of one’s own negative characteristics.
- dthe drawing into consciousness of mental contents that are unpleasant.
5) If the personality system no longer exerts self-control—if it becomes destabilized, or if the conscious self can no longer govern the rest—the personality system
- aexhibits less OCD.
- bdegenerates into a disorganized, relatively nonoperative collection of functions.
- cbecomes more flexible and less rigid.
- dbecomes spontaneous and fun-loving.
6) An unconscious defense mechanism that involves channeling undesirable motives, such as aggression, into socially acceptable pursuits, such as being a butcher or surgeon, is
7) When thoughts and action programs are separated from consciousness temporarily, they may be referred to as
8) Suppression means
- arepressing something a second time.
- bconsciously blocking out unwanted thoughts.
- cdenying that an action took place.
- dcombining motivations.
9) The ego has been compared to a(n) ________ by Greenwald.
10) According to Greenwald, beneffectance (self-serving attribution bias) is the tendency to
- awork effectively.
- bdo good deeds.
- cview the world as a good place.
- dtake credit for good things and avoid blame for bad things.
11) According to Hilgard, a characteristic feature of the hypnotic trance is that personal planning is
- bheightened in its reality contact.
- crestricted to the present or past.
12) When people search for feedback and collect information about themselves, it is called
13) A defense mechanism that involves perceiving or attributing one’s own negative motivation to someone else is
- berror of commission.
- csocial comparison.
14) Dynamics of self-control usually begin with some real or perceived involvement of
- aunconscious agency.
- bsocial presses that require a change of action.
- cbiological needs.
- dthe conscious self, ego, or conscious executive.
15) A defense mechanism that involves hiding one’s unacceptable motive (e.g., aggression) by embracing the opposite motive (e.g., love) is
- dreaction formation.