1) Profound cognitive changes take place between about three and four years of age. One of these is
- athat children understand formal logic for the first time.
- bthat children are able to develop permanent memories of life events for the first time.
- cthat the cognitive system is permanently “sealed off” from the emotional system.
- dthe beginning of a period of unusual cognitive stability, during which the child “locks into” a way of viewing the world that often doesn’t change until late adolescence.
2) Most human children recognize their own reflection in a mirror
- afrom birth.
- bat three years of age.
- cbetween fifteen and eighteen months of age.
- dat six months.
3) Undercontrolled children are
- ashy and reserved.
- bemotionally reactive, negative, easily distracted, and impulsive.
- cthose raised by parents with neglectful or permissive styles.
- dall of the above.
4) Androgyny refers to
- apossessing moderate or high levels of the traits of both masculinity and femininity.
- ba man who scores high on the masculine end of the dimension of masculinity-femininity.
- cpossessing few or no traits of either masculinity or femininity.
- da woman who scores high on the masculine end of the dimension of masculinity-femininity.
5) The definition of personality development in the book refers to
- ahow a person’s outside life evolves over the life-span.
- bhow structure changes the individual over time.
- chow the parts of personality and their organization change across the life-span.
- dthe sum total of a person’s biography.
6) Erikson believed that by the conclusion of the life-cycle, the healthy individual has attained (in the words of his stage theory)
- afairness, law, and justice.
- bthe possibilities of life, love, and work.
- csense, sensuality, and spirituality.
- dintimacy, generativity, and ego-integrity.
7) During adolescence, the growing person is often said to be focused on his or her
- aidentification with a particular group or group leader.
- bfit with the world and available social roles.
- cchanging body and how it looks.
- dall of the above.
8) “Gender role” can be defined as
- asynonymous with “gender dimorphism.”
- bsynonymous with biological sex.
- cthe role a person creates and employs, that reflects his or her individual expression and interpretation of his or her biological sex.
- dcharacteristic behaviors a person is expected to perform in relation to his or her sex.
9) A key demand that becomes central to a young children’s (two-and-a-half to five years of age) sense of well-being is
- aexercising self-control in social interactions to a much greater degree than before.
- brecognizing emotional expressions and social interactions for the first time.
- centering the formal operations stage.
- dall of the above.
10) Attachment patterns are first seen in
- blatency age children.
- cmiddle childhood.
11) Influences on personality development are often said to include
- athe intrinsic and extrinsic causes.
- bthe early, middle, and later influences.
- cthe particularistic, the structural, and the encomanian.
- dthe biological, situational, interactional, and cultural influences.
12) The tasks of the broad period of middle childhood, from roughly age 6 or 7 to 13, are often focused on
- anavigating the dramatic changes in emotional activity and expression that occur during this time.
- bcreating an initial, first understanding regarding sexual identity and sex roles.
- cmaintaining social relations and personal industry in school.
- drepairing injured connections with one’s parent(s) and/or caretakers that occurred in the preceding, early childhood period.
13) Early childhood temperament
- apersists and exerts continuing influences on the individual’s traits in middle childhood.
- bbears no relationship on personality by middle childhood.
- cexhibits a paradoxical effect in which many traits reverse themselves by middle childhood.
- ddisappears by the end of the early childhood.
14) The time during which growing male and female children undergo rapid sexual maturation and achieve the capacity to reproduce is called
- cyouth acceleration.
15) Temperament refers to
- athe consequences of infant distemper—which may have substantial influences on the developing individual’s later personality.
- bthe basic motivational and emotional building blocks—illustrated by the customary responses of infants—that later make up personality traits.
- cthe cyclic variation of an infant’s circadian temperature, which may help determine his or her later positive and negative affect.
- dnone of the above.