1) The tasks of the broad period of middle childhood, from roughly age 6 or 7 to 13, are often focused on
- anavigating the dramatic changes in emotional activity and expression that occur during this time.
- bcreating an initial, first understanding regarding sexual identity and sex roles.
- cmaintaining social relations and personal industry in school.
- drepairing injured connections with one’s parent(s) and/or caretakers that occurred in the preceding, early childhood period.
2) Androgyny refers to
- apossessing moderate or high levels of the traits of both masculinity and femininity.
- ba man who scores high on the masculine end of the dimension of masculinity-femininity.
- cpossessing few or no traits of either masculinity or femininity.
- da woman who scores high on the masculine end of the dimension of masculinity-femininity.
3) Early childhood temperament
- apersists and exerts continuing influences on the individual’s traits in middle childhood.
- bbears no relationship on personality by middle childhood.
- cexhibits a paradoxical effect in which many traits reverse themselves by middle childhood.
- ddisappears by the end of the early childhood.
4) Profound cognitive changes take place between about three and four years of age. One of these is
- athat children understand formal logic for the first time.
- bthat children are able to develop permanent memories of life events for the first time.
- cthat the cognitive system is permanently “sealed off” from the emotional system.
- dthe beginning of a period of unusual cognitive stability, during which the child “locks into” a way of viewing the world that often doesn’t change until late adolescence.
5) The time during which growing male and female children undergo rapid sexual maturation and achieve the capacity to reproduce is called
- cyouth acceleration.
6) The definition of personality development in the book refers to
- ahow a person’s outside life evolves over the life-span.
- bhow structure changes the individual over time.
- chow the parts of personality and their organization change across the life-span.
- dthe sum total of a person’s biography.
7) Undercontrolled children are
- ashy and reserved.
- bemotionally reactive, negative, easily distracted, and impulsive.
- cthose raised by parents with neglectful or permissive styles.
- dall of the above.
8) Most human children recognize their own reflection in a mirror
- afrom birth.
- bat three years of age.
- cbetween fifteen and eighteen months of age.
- dat six months.
9) “Gender role” can be defined as
- asynonymous with “gender dimorphism.”
- bsynonymous with biological sex.
- cthe role a person creates and employs, that reflects his or her individual expression and interpretation of his or her biological sex.
- dcharacteristic behaviors a person is expected to perform in relation to his or her sex.
10) Influences on personality development are often said to include
- athe intrinsic and extrinsic causes.
- bthe early, middle, and later influences.
- cthe particularistic, the structural, and the encomanian.
- dthe biological, situational, interactional, and cultural influences.
11) A key demand that becomes central to a young children’s (two-and-a-half to five years of age) sense of well-being is
- aexercising self-control in social interactions to a much greater degree than before.
- brecognizing emotional expressions and social interactions for the first time.
- centering the formal operations stage.
- dall of the above.
12) Temperament refers to
- athe consequences of infant distemper—which may have substantial influences on the developing individual’s later personality.
- bthe basic motivational and emotional building blocks—illustrated by the customary responses of infants—that later make up personality traits.
- cthe cyclic variation of an infant’s circadian temperature, which may help determine his or her later positive and negative affect.
- dnone of the above.
13) Erikson believed that by the conclusion of the life-cycle, the healthy individual has attained (in the words of his stage theory)
- afairness, law, and justice.
- bthe possibilities of life, love, and work.
- csense, sensuality, and spirituality.
- dintimacy, generativity, and ego-integrity.
14) Attachment patterns are first seen in
- blatency age children.
- cmiddle childhood.
15) During adolescence, the growing person is often said to be focused on his or her
- aidentification with a particular group or group leader.
- bfit with the world and available social roles.
- cchanging body and how it looks.
- dall of the above.