1) Across studies by Kelly and Conley (1987), Jockin, McGue, and Lykken (1996), and others, personality characteristics associated with staying married include
- asocial dominance, extraversion, positive affect, and friendliness.
- ba calm husband, a calm wife, traditional values, and a lack of impulsivity on the part of the partners.
- cneed for affiliation, need for control on the part of one spouse, and social potency.
- dthere are no relations between personality and staying married.
2) According to Maslow, the self-actualized person
- acan achieve a “flow state” with ease.
- bis governed by an intense appreciation with and connection to reality.
- cslightly overestimates the positives in his or her life, relative to the real situation.
- dachieves a balance between the id and superego.
3) A sense of control over one’s life and one’s destiny increases with
- aa sense of generativity.
- bLevinson’s young adulthood stage.
- cincreased life-span.
- dErikson’s intimacy stage.
4) Studies of elections indicate that the ________ has the advantage over the ________.
- aType A candidate; Type C candidate
- bintrovert; extrovert
- coptimist; pessimist
- dlong sleeper; short sleeper
5) Sex differences in seeking mates are sometimes ascribed to the idea that
- amen and women evolved differently, with somewhat different needs, during the early development of human society.
- bsociety has created certain expectations regarding women and men’s behaviors that are, to some extent, perpetuated from generation to generation.
- cdifferences in groups can arise by chance—punctuated differentiation—and then change unexpectedly.
- dboth A and B.
6) The trait quality measured by the Big Five that most clearly predicts job success across all occupations is
- bemotional stability.
7) The positive psychology movement examines positive character traits such as
- apositivity, negativity, and neutrality.
- bintelligence and conscientiousness.
- cfidelity, conventionality, and conservatism.
- doptimism, creativity, and gratitude.
8) Although the sexes are overlapping in their interests in one another, there is a slight difference in that
- amen seek extroverted women, whereas women seek introverted men.
- bmen seek youthful attractive women, whereas women seek social status and resources such as money and prestige in men.
- cactually, there is no detectable difference in seeking mates between the sexes.
- dwomen seek youthful attractive men, whereas men seek social status and resources such as money and prestige in women.
9) The transitional stage between adolescence and adulthood that many college students find themselves in has been referred to as ________ or ________ by psychologists.
- apost identity; pre-intimacy
- bidentity formation; identity consolidation
- cearly adult transition; emerging adulthood
- dpreparedness for adulthood; tentative adulthood
10) Healthy people, according to a functional perspective,
- afall into one of several categories of healthy personality types.
- bcan perform the basic tasks necessary for establishing relationships and being productive.
- ccan be characterized as possessing a long list of positive traits.
- dall of the above.
11) Some qualities of later adulthood include
- athe use of time for reflection and thinking about oneself.
- bthe loss of friends and relatives both older and younger than oneself.
- ca healthier, longer life.
- dall of the above.
12) The assortive mating hypothesis states that people choose partners who
- aare different from themselves, perhaps so as to compensate for their limitations.
- bare living in close proximity to themselves.
- chave sorted themselves out and have a clear self-image.
- dare similar to themselves.
13) Erikson believed that the transition in adolescence, from childhood to adulthood, was marked by a stage he called
- aintimacy versus trust.
- bintegrity versus despair.
- cidentity versus identity diffusion.
- dmaturity versus immaturity.
14) The complementary selection hypothesis states that people choose partners who
- aare living in close proximity to themselves.
- bwill compliment them, express gratitude, and say other nice things.
- care similar to themselves.
- dare different from themselves, perhaps to compensate for their limitations.
15) Adult personality development can be characterized as
- arelatively nonexistent, in that the person is basically stable through adulthood.
- bbuilding and expanding upon development that has come before.
- cinvolving a continuity of progress rather than involving any specific stages, as did childhood.
- dunrelated to development that has come before.