1) Studies of elections indicate that the ________ has the advantage over the ________.
- aType A candidate; Type C candidate
- bintrovert; extrovert
- coptimist; pessimist
- dlong sleeper; short sleeper
2) The transitional stage between adolescence and adulthood that many college students find themselves in has been referred to as ________ or ________ by psychologists.
- apost identity; pre-intimacy
- bidentity formation; identity consolidation
- cearly adult transition; emerging adulthood
- dpreparedness for adulthood; tentative adulthood
3) The trait quality measured by the Big Five that most clearly predicts job success across all occupations is
- bemotional stability.
4) The assortive mating hypothesis states that people choose partners who
- aare different from themselves, perhaps so as to compensate for their limitations.
- bare living in close proximity to themselves.
- chave sorted themselves out and have a clear self-image.
- dare similar to themselves.
5) Sex differences in seeking mates are sometimes ascribed to the idea that
- amen and women evolved differently, with somewhat different needs, during the early development of human society.
- bsociety has created certain expectations regarding women and men’s behaviors that are, to some extent, perpetuated from generation to generation.
- cdifferences in groups can arise by chance—punctuated differentiation—and then change unexpectedly.
- dboth A and B.
6) Although the sexes are overlapping in their interests in one another, there is a slight difference in that
- amen seek extroverted women, whereas women seek introverted men.
- bmen seek youthful attractive women, whereas women seek social status and resources such as money and prestige in men.
- cactually, there is no detectable difference in seeking mates between the sexes.
- dwomen seek youthful attractive men, whereas men seek social status and resources such as money and prestige in women.
7) According to Maslow, the self-actualized person
- acan achieve a “flow state” with ease.
- bis governed by an intense appreciation with and connection to reality.
- cslightly overestimates the positives in his or her life, relative to the real situation.
- dachieves a balance between the id and superego.
8) The complementary selection hypothesis states that people choose partners who
- aare living in close proximity to themselves.
- bwill compliment them, express gratitude, and say other nice things.
- care similar to themselves.
- dare different from themselves, perhaps to compensate for their limitations.
9) Healthy people, according to a functional perspective,
- afall into one of several categories of healthy personality types.
- bcan perform the basic tasks necessary for establishing relationships and being productive.
- ccan be characterized as possessing a long list of positive traits.
- dall of the above.
10) A sense of control over one’s life and one’s destiny increases with
- aa sense of generativity.
- bLevinson’s young adulthood stage.
- cincreased life-span.
- dErikson’s intimacy stage.
11) Some qualities of later adulthood include
- athe use of time for reflection and thinking about oneself.
- bthe loss of friends and relatives both older and younger than oneself.
- ca healthier, longer life.
- dall of the above.
12) Across studies by Kelly and Conley (1987), Jockin, McGue, and Lykken (1996), and others, personality characteristics associated with staying married include
- asocial dominance, extraversion, positive affect, and friendliness.
- ba calm husband, a calm wife, traditional values, and a lack of impulsivity on the part of the partners.
- cneed for affiliation, need for control on the part of one spouse, and social potency.
- dthere are no relations between personality and staying married.
13) Erikson believed that the transition in adolescence, from childhood to adulthood, was marked by a stage he called
- aintimacy versus trust.
- bintegrity versus despair.
- cidentity versus identity diffusion.
- dmaturity versus immaturity.
14) The positive psychology movement examines positive character traits such as
- apositivity, negativity, and neutrality.
- bintelligence and conscientiousness.
- cfidelity, conventionality, and conservatism.
- doptimism, creativity, and gratitude.
15) Adult personality development can be characterized as
- arelatively nonexistent, in that the person is basically stable through adulthood.
- bbuilding and expanding upon development that has come before.
- cinvolving a continuity of progress rather than involving any specific stages, as did childhood.
- dunrelated to development that has come before.