1) “Trait” theories in general hold that
- apeople have few characteristics that they share.
- ba person's behavior is in many ways consistent over time.
- cthe search for patterns in personality is misguided.
- ddifferent situations produce entirely different behaviors.
2) A central dimension of difference across cultures, studied today in cross-cultural psychology, is the difference along a continuum of
3) Two examples of theories of personality given in the book are
- aself-monitoring studies and frustration-aggression.
- bbiological and social.
- csystems and theory-by-theory.
- devolutionary psychology and trait.
4) “What are a person's most important psychological motives?” This question might most likely arise from which perspective?
5) A psychologist who emphasized that people's behavior changes from situation to situation as they think about the social demands and opportunities involved was
- aLew Goldberg
- bB. F. Skinner
- cWalter Mischel
- dJack Block
6) A ________ such as biopsychology or intrapsychic provides a general viewpoint as to important influences on personality.
- aset of experimental results
7) In the cross-cultural view of personality
- acollectivism builds stronger personalities.
- bpersonality is less important than culture.
- cpersonality is fairly consistent across cultures.
- dan individual is a carrier of his or her own cultural knowledge, that knowledge influences personality.
8) “What motives have evolved to help the person adapt to the environment and reproduce?” This question would most likely arise from which perspective?
9) One very important contribution of Maslow to the field of personality has been his emphasis on
- athe study of very healthy people.
- bthe tumultuous self.
- cquantitative investigation.
- dthe study of dominance.
10) According to Erikson, trust is learned by the infant
- aand is associated with muscular maturation especially with holding and letting go.
- bin the second stage of his developmental cycle.
- cin Erikson's first stage, through testing and tasting, in a manner similar to Freud's idea of the oral stage.
- dand if trust is overlearned it may lead to depressive or schizophrenic withdrawal.
11) Some examples of hormones that influence personality
- ainclude sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.
- binclude many digestive enzymes.
- cinclude the psychogenic hormones extravertagen and introvertarone.
- dcannot be provided because hormones do not influence personality.
12) A person begins to attend parties, and finds that others respond positively to him, making him feel good. As a consequence, he attends more parties. This description explains how extraversion might emerge through
- aoperant conditioning.
- cclassical conditioning.
- dego functioning.
13) Which approach focuses on the idea that multiple theories are complementary of each other?
- athe systems approach
- bthe micro-theory approach
- cthe psychodynamic approach
- dthe humanistic approach
14) A micro-theory is ________ specific in comparison to a perspective.
- dsometimes more and sometimes less
15) The brain influences personality through its
- asize, as in the case of intelligence.
- binfluence on the immune system.
- cneurochemistry, as in the case of neurotransmitters.
- dall of the above.