1) Society is invested in replacing many of our informally developed models of the world with more formal, professionally developed models. To improve people’s models of the world, society
- aprovides universal education.
- bpays people more for attaining higher levels of education.
- cencourages people to wear formal clothes on important occasions.
- dboth A and B.
2) Constructive thinking involves higher levels of both
- aschematic proliferation and positive coping.
- bincreased cerebration and decreased ontogeny.
- cadaptive coping and the avoidance of irrational thinking.
- dnaïve optimism and realistic pessimism.
3) The collective unconscious
- ais part of the conative self.
- bis largely or entirely the same across individuals and even across cultures.
- cvaries from individual to individual.
- dis due to dissociation.
4) Freud’s notion of transference refers to which of the following?
- athe automatic and often irrational transference of feelings from a significant person in one’s life to a new person
- bthe automatic and often irrational transference of feelings from a new person to a significant person in one’s life
- cthe transference of the personality one experiences as he or she enters a new psychosexual stage
- dthe tendency to transfer cognitions into self-control
5) Some psychologists refer to the various models of the self that a person maintains as
- athe conscious selves.
- bpossible selves.
- cthe me selves.
- dideal selves.
6) What term did Jung use to refer to primal symbols that share a common meaning to people in all cultures at all times?
- atranscendental memories
- bstructured memories
- dunisymbolic memories
7) In the theory of constructive thinking, irrational thinking includes such things as
- abelief in good luck charms, superstitions, and dividing the world in black and white terms.
- bdeveloping a belief that a failure, for example, is limited and can be followed by success.
- cdefensive pessimism.
- dmishearing a conversation and believing it means something it does not.
8) A schema is
- aa visual image of an idea.
- ban organized collection of related information in memory.
- ca memory trait.
- da specific plan for carrying out related tasks in the environment.
9) Mental models are
- aalways learned.
- balways innate (i.e., biological).
- cmostly learned, but in some instances may be biologically “prepared for.”
- dof entirely uncertain origin.
10) A script-based structure is
- aa socially defined part that one plays in society.
- ba model of an object based on the list of its most typical or common features.
- ca prototypical sequence of actions that needs to take place in order to accomplish a goal.
- da specific sequence of events that tells the story of something that happened to a person.
11) Ethics and morals
- aare generally not considered personality variables.
- bare usually formed by the time a child is three or four years of age.
- care highly related to extraversion.
- dcan be considered mental models of relationships in the world.
12) ________ models are learned in a gradual manner through the means of daily life experiences, rather than through the means of educational institutions.
- aAll world
13) Both entity theorists and incremental theorists believe
- apeople can change their traits.
- bsome people are very stable and other people, termed chaotic, change, sometimes unpredictably.
- cpeople’s personality is mostly stable.
- dnone of the above.
14) The storied self, or autobiographical self, is a portion of the self-model that includes
- aunconnected past recollections.
- bfabrications about oneself.
- cone’s own, personal, life story and the meanings one gives it.
- dnone of the above.
15) Three possible selves that E. T. Higgins was concerned with were the
- afeared self, hated self, and loved self.
- bconscious self, subconscious self, and unconscious self.
- cactual self, ideal self, and ought self.
- dpersonal self, social self, and shadow self.