1) In the theory of constructive thinking, irrational thinking includes such things as
- abelief in good luck charms, superstitions, and dividing the world in black and white terms.
- bdeveloping a belief that a failure, for example, is limited and can be followed by success.
- cdefensive pessimism.
- dmishearing a conversation and believing it means something it does not.
2) What term did Jung use to refer to primal symbols that share a common meaning to people in all cultures at all times?
- atranscendental memories
- bstructured memories
- dunisymbolic memories
3) The collective unconscious
- ais part of the conative self.
- bis largely or entirely the same across individuals and even across cultures.
- cvaries from individual to individual.
- dis due to dissociation.
4) Both entity theorists and incremental theorists believe
- apeople can change their traits.
- bsome people are very stable and other people, termed chaotic, change, sometimes unpredictably.
- cpeople’s personality is mostly stable.
- dnone of the above.
5) Constructive thinking involves higher levels of both
- aschematic proliferation and positive coping.
- bincreased cerebration and decreased ontogeny.
- cadaptive coping and the avoidance of irrational thinking.
- dnaïve optimism and realistic pessimism.
6) Mental models are
- aalways learned.
- balways innate (i.e., biological).
- cmostly learned, but in some instances may be biologically “prepared for.”
- dof entirely uncertain origin.
7) Society is invested in replacing many of our informally developed models of the world with more formal, professionally developed models. To improve people’s models of the world, society
- aprovides universal education.
- bpays people more for attaining higher levels of education.
- cencourages people to wear formal clothes on important occasions.
- dboth A and B.
8) A schema is
- aa visual image of an idea.
- ban organized collection of related information in memory.
- ca memory trait.
- da specific plan for carrying out related tasks in the environment.
9) A script-based structure is
- aa socially defined part that one plays in society.
- ba model of an object based on the list of its most typical or common features.
- ca prototypical sequence of actions that needs to take place in order to accomplish a goal.
- da specific sequence of events that tells the story of something that happened to a person.
10) Freud’s notion of transference refers to which of the following?
- athe automatic and often irrational transference of feelings from a significant person in one’s life to a new person
- bthe automatic and often irrational transference of feelings from a new person to a significant person in one’s life
- cthe transference of the personality one experiences as he or she enters a new psychosexual stage
- dthe tendency to transfer cognitions into self-control
11) Ethics and morals
- aare generally not considered personality variables.
- bare usually formed by the time a child is three or four years of age.
- care highly related to extraversion.
- dcan be considered mental models of relationships in the world.
12) ________ models are learned in a gradual manner through the means of daily life experiences, rather than through the means of educational institutions.
- aAll world
13) Some psychologists refer to the various models of the self that a person maintains as
- athe conscious selves.
- bpossible selves.
- cthe me selves.
- dideal selves.
14) Three possible selves that E. T. Higgins was concerned with were the
- afeared self, hated self, and loved self.
- bconscious self, subconscious self, and unconscious self.
- cactual self, ideal self, and ought self.
- dpersonal self, social self, and shadow self.
15) The storied self, or autobiographical self, is a portion of the self-model that includes
- aunconnected past recollections.
- bfabrications about oneself.
- cone’s own, personal, life story and the meanings one gives it.
- dnone of the above.