1) The five-factor personality model is most centrally based on
- athe actual words found in dictionaries that people use to describe one another.
- btest items written by a commission of psychologists appointed by the American Psychological Association.
- ctest items drawn from across the scales of Eysenck, Cattell, and others.
- dcomputer models of personality systems and their interactions.
2) Structural models that highlight degrees of mental awareness
- aprovide important explanations of how action takes place.
- bhave not yet demonstrated their importance.
- cspeak directly to the central issue of self-knowledge.
- dare of little importance beyond their historical significance (Freud pioneered them).
3) As neurons leave the retina, they fire in particular patterns of which we are unaware and unconscious. This is an example of
- aa process that we have not learned to recognize (i.e., a lack of education).
- ba process to which we have no access (i.e., the unconscious proper).
- ca process that is divided (i.e., divided consciousness).
- da process that is unnoticed (i.e., a person pays no attention to it).
4) The trilogy of mind refers to
- aself, world, and self-in-world.
- bmotivation, emotion, and cognition.
- cpreconscious, conscious, and unconscious.
- did, ego, and superego.
5) In Mischel and Shoda’s cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS), ________ are emotions and related feelings in response to people, situations, and their outcomes.
6) Personality structure refers to
- athe relatively enduring, stable areas that are inside personality or that connect it to the environment.
- bthe dynamic changing cycles and actions of personality that represent why it is always different and evolving.
- cthe ways in which personality develops over time.
- dmany very different ideas; unfortunately, psychologists cannot agree as to a definition of structure.
7) In Mischel and Shoda’s cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS), ________ are the categories into which people, situations, and events are sorted.
8) Unconscious influences that occur because they are unnoticed can best (most easily) be made conscious through
- crepeating behaviors.
- dno process yet known. They cannot be made conscious.
9) Personality structures accomplish what?
- ahelp psychologists organize personality’s many parts
- bupdate psychodynamic theory so that it can still be useful today
- chelp keep an individual’s personality fashionable
- dweigh the relative merits of psychodynamic and social cognitive theories
10) The two-trait factor model extracted by Eysenck included
- apleasant-unpleasant mood; extroversion-introversion.
- bextraversion-neuroticism; high-low intelligence.
- chigh-low intelligence; neuroticism-stability.
- dextraversion-introversion; neuroticism-stability.
11) Personality structure is important because
- ait connects personality to the urban environment.
- bit helps to organize and classify the many parts of personality.
- cit directly describes the way personality changes, evolves, and develops.
- dthere is no evidence, as of yet, that studies of personality structure are critical to the field, though such studies hold some promise for assisting scientists in the future.
12) Three “brains” that make up the human brain, and that each took on different functions during animal evolution, are
- athe genetic, cellular, and structural brains.
- bthe reptilian, old mammalian, and neo-mammalian brains.
- cthe paleontological, mammalianal, and anthropological brains.
- dthe seminal, cerebeliar, and cerebral brains.
13) One reason there are multiple versions of personality structure is that
- adifferent structural divisions of the mind can be useful for different purposes.
- bpersonality is constantly shape-shifting, morphing into something else, and developing new qualities.
- cin case one structural model gets lost, others can be used.
- ddynamic actions change the personality from one structure to another.
14) Personality structure can help
- arelate personality to the environment.
- borganize personality traits.
- cdescribe the person in a more balanced fashion.
- dall of the above.
15) A supertrait or big trait is
- aany trait that a person scores very highly on.
- bany member of a set of three or fewer traits.
- ca trait that organizes a number of more specific traits within it.
- donly those five traits that are members of the Big Five.