What Are Dynamics of Action?
1. Dynamics Traits and Local Dynamics: Motivational traits are typically labeled as dynamic. Why is this?
2. Mid-Level and Global Dynamics: What are mid-level and global dynamics, and how do they differ from local dynamics. What kind of dynamics are the dynamics of action described in this chapter?
3. Dynamics and Personality Change: How are dynamics different than traits? If you can change a person’s dynamic functioning, can you change what they do?
Which Needs Will Begin Action?
4. Needs and Their Potency: Which needs are most important? What happens if one need is stronger than another?
5. Determinant Needs and Subsidiary Needs: According to Freud, the major determinant needs were sex and aggression. What would this mean in regard to subsidiary needs? Can you define determinant and subsidiary needs?
6. Need Conflicts: Two sorts of conflicts arise around needs. One kind of conflict involves the case when two needs lead a person in different directions. What is the other kind of need conflict? When a person experiences many need conflicts, what happens to the individual’s well-being?
7. Need Fusion: Need fusion arises when a single aim satisfies many needs. How would this relate to need conflicts and the relation between determinant and subsidiary needs?
How Does Action Develop in the Mind?
8. Motivation, Emotion, and Mood-Congruent Thought: Happiness can work to enhance a person’s overall motivation, whereas depression can be a global de-motivator, undermining a person’s energy and interest in doing things. Mood can also influence motivation-related thoughts through the mood-congruent cognition effects—influencing both memory and judgment. Can you give examples of each effect?
9. Expectancies and the Likelihood of Action: Julian Rotter introduced the idea of expectancies and the likelihood of action. In Rotter’s conception, expectancies interacted with a second aspect of motivation to determine a person’s actions. Can you name the second aspect? How did expectancies and that other aspect of motivation combine to predict a person’s motivation?
How Are Acts Performed?
10. The Communication Channels: Communication begins at the motor cortex. Where is the motor cortex and what is it like? People communicate through language and physical acts. What are some physical channels, such as facial expressions, through which people express themselves?
11. Conscious and Automatic Forms of Action: Some behavior can be automatic, such as when acts are performed repeatedly. Why might it be adaptive for such repeated behaviors to become nonconscious?
Can We Recognize Conflicted Actions?
12. Partial Expressions and Slips of the Tongue: Not all motives are ready for action, and some ideas and urges are turned back rather than expressed. What happens to these turned-back ideas? Sometimes the ideas may be expressed accidentally through slips of the tongue. Why are these called Freudian slips, and is there any research evidence to support their occurrence?
13. Latent versus Manifest Content: Communication can be complex and carry multiple meanings. One simple approach to deciphering it is to distinguish between a communication’s simple, direct, obvious meaning and its underlying meaning. Sometimes this is referred to as a communication’s manifest versus latent content. Do you know which is which?
How Do People Act Smoothly?
14. Stagecraft and Self-Presentation: People manage their self-presentation so as to have desired influences on others; sometimes, however, their impact may be out of their control. Can you provide an example of an intentional and unintended aspect of self-presentation?
15. Symbolic Interactionism: Symbolic interactionism is a school of social psychology that focuses on the symbolic analysis of interpersonal communication. In symbolic interactionism, a person attempts to conform his or her behavior to particular roles he or she desires. To maintain such roles, the individual may employ disclaimers, accounts, and altercasting. Can you define these and provide examples of each?