This chapter considers the ways in which individuals learn the language of the society into which they are born and how language relates to culture and behavior. This discussion includes the relationship of the individual to his or her culture, the range of personality variation within cultures, and ways that cultures deal with individuals whose behavior is outside the generally accepted norms. 

·      Learning Objective 1: Understand the various stages of speech perception of infants and young children.

·      Learning Objective 2: Understand the relationship between learning one’s language and learning one’s culture, including gender roles and appropriate social behaviors. 

·      Learning Objective 3: Understand the uses and limitations of cross-cultural study of personality types.

·      Learning Objective 4: Explore cross-cultural processes of enculturation and the connection between child-rearing and personality.

·      Learning Objecting 5: Understand how anthropologists study mental illness using a cross-cultural perspective.