1) Which of the following likely did NOT come into play in the 2008 U.S. presidential election?
- aAffective voting regarding the personal qualities of the candidates
- bPolicy direction preferences related to voters’ group interests
- cPolicy direction voting based upon voter values and ideologies
- dRealignment of social and cultural characteristics between the two major parties
- eOppositional retrospective voting as a result of the ongoing financial crisis
2) Gerrymandering, in which electoral districts are drawn with the specific intention of benefiting a certain political party (or limiting an opposition party), is a consequence of what type of electoral system change?
3) Which of the following does NOT explain Narendra Modi’s success in the 2014 Indian elections?
- aOppositional affective evaluations of the Congress Party helped the BJP.
- bModi’s campaigning style won over the influential media.
- cSingle member districts amplified the strength of the BJP victory.
- dCorruption scandals had weakened the Congress Party in important regions.
- eModi was able to galvanize support from a single ethnic group.
4) Which of the following does NOT offer a suitable explanation for the decline in party membership in recent decades?
- aThe number of party sympathizers (‘weak’ supporters) has dropped.
- bRetrospective voting has led voters to judge existing parties negatively.
- cCompeting social and cultural values lead voters to sway between parties.
- dIndependent voters are more numerous than ever before.
- eVoters have become less connected and identifiable with a party.
5) Which of the following would NOT encourage voter turnout in the United States?
- aMoving the election to a Sunday or public holiday.
- bAdding a referendum to the ballot.
- cNominating a charismatic and historic candidate from a major party.
- dRequiring mandatory voting by law.
- eLimiting the participation of smaller, independent parties in the election.
6) Which of the following is NOT an example of affective voting for a candidate?
- aWhen a steelwork votes for a labor party candidate.
- bWhen a veteran votes for a former war hero.
- cWhen a voter has a ‘gut feeling’ about a particular candidate.
- dWhen a voter calculates which politician makes the most sense to represent them.
- eWhen an ethnic Zulu votes for only Zulu politicians.
7) Proportional representation (PR) systems tend to present voters with more candidates for which of the following reasons?
- aPR systems have smaller electoral districts.
- bPR systems require fewer votes to win seats and thus encourage smaller parties.
- cPR systems encourage parties with better publicity teams.
- dPR systems are found in countries with more sophisticated voters.
- ePR systems encourage parties to work together and build coalitions.
8) Which of the following explanations for voting does not require a voter to have any knowledge of a candidate’s ideological position?
- aPolicy direction voting
- bValues voting
- cInterest Group voting
- dAffective voting
- eParticular policy voting
9) Which of the following does NOT describe a way in which voter affect played into Obama’s successful election?
- aYoung voters were persuaded by his personal charisma.
- bAfrican-American voters felt a shared ethno-cultural connection.
- cVeterans felt him to be a commanding military figure.
- dVoters of all backgrounds found him to be a steady leader in times of crisis.
- eVoters felt an oppositional reaction towards Senator McCain.
10) This Indian prime minister was able to capitalize on the wavering strength of the Congress Party and claim victory in 2014.
- aNarendra Modi
- bManmohan Singh
- cIndira Gandhi
- dRajiv Gandhi
- eLok Sabha