1) Proportional representation (PR) systems tend to present voters with more candidates for which of the following reasons?
- aPR systems have smaller electoral districts.
- bPR systems require fewer votes to win seats and thus encourage smaller parties.
- cPR systems encourage parties with better publicity teams.
- dPR systems are found in countries with more sophisticated voters.
- ePR systems encourage parties to work together and build coalitions.
2) This Indian prime minister was able to capitalize on the wavering strength of the Congress Party and claim victory in 2014.
- aNarendra Modi
- bManmohan Singh
- cIndira Gandhi
- dRajiv Gandhi
- eLok Sabha
3) Which of the following explanations for voting does not require a voter to have any knowledge of a candidate’s ideological position?
- aPolicy direction voting
- bValues voting
- cInterest Group voting
- dAffective voting
- eParticular policy voting
4) Which of the following does NOT describe a way in which voter affect played into Obama’s successful election?
- aYoung voters were persuaded by his personal charisma.
- bAfrican-American voters felt a shared ethno-cultural connection.
- cVeterans felt him to be a commanding military figure.
- dVoters of all backgrounds found him to be a steady leader in times of crisis.
- eVoters felt an oppositional reaction towards Senator McCain.
5) Which of the following would NOT encourage voter turnout in the United States?
- aMoving the election to a Sunday or public holiday.
- bAdding a referendum to the ballot.
- cNominating a charismatic and historic candidate from a major party.
- dRequiring mandatory voting by law.
- eLimiting the participation of smaller, independent parties in the election.
6) Gerrymandering, in which electoral districts are drawn with the specific intention of benefiting a certain political party (or limiting an opposition party), is a consequence of what type of electoral system change?
7) Which of the following is NOT an example of affective voting for a candidate?
- aWhen a steelwork votes for a labor party candidate.
- bWhen a veteran votes for a former war hero.
- cWhen a voter has a ‘gut feeling’ about a particular candidate.
- dWhen a voter calculates which politician makes the most sense to represent them.
- eWhen an ethnic Zulu votes for only Zulu politicians.
8) Which of the following likely did NOT come into play in the 2008 U.S. presidential election?
- aAffective voting regarding the personal qualities of the candidates
- bPolicy direction preferences related to voters’ group interests
- cPolicy direction voting based upon voter values and ideologies
- dRealignment of social and cultural characteristics between the two major parties
- eOppositional retrospective voting as a result of the ongoing financial crisis
9) Which of the following does NOT explain Narendra Modi’s success in the 2014 Indian elections?
- aOppositional affective evaluations of the Congress Party helped the BJP.
- bModi’s campaigning style won over the influential media.
- cSingle member districts amplified the strength of the BJP victory.
- dCorruption scandals had weakened the Congress Party in important regions.
- eModi was able to galvanize support from a single ethnic group.
10) Which of the following does NOT offer a suitable explanation for the decline in party membership in recent decades?
- aThe number of party sympathizers (‘weak’ supporters) has dropped.
- bRetrospective voting has led voters to judge existing parties negatively.
- cCompeting social and cultural values lead voters to sway between parties.
- dIndependent voters are more numerous than ever before.
- eVoters have become less connected and identifiable with a party.