1) In the _____ religion, passages on the dominant religious text can be used by clerics to argue for religious leadership or the establishment of a theocracy.
2) Transition to democracy is smoothest and most durable when . . .
- apersonal authoritarian rule is in place.
- bauthoritarian elite are accustomed to competition.
- cmilitary rulers share power.
- dsingle-party rule fragments.
- edominant single parties are reformed.
3) Which of the following traditionally does NOT fit into the concept of “modernization”?
- cGrowth of the middle class
- dIncreased religiosity
- eSpike in technology
4) According to _____, presidential governments may be less stable than parliamentary ones during transition periods, as they provide incentive for executive overreach and create a divided legitimacy problem.
- aAlberto Fujimori
- bJose Sarnay
- cJuan Linz
- dHugo Chavez
- eVladimir Putin
5) This brand of political party attempts to destroy the political establishment; its presence may be detrimental to democratization.
- aProtest party
- bMass party
- cPopulist party
- dCartel party
6) Pacted transitions usually involve dialogue between _____ and _____ about how best to adapt the regime to the demands of democratization.
- ahaves . . . have nots
- belites . . . citizens
- cmilitary . . . politicians
- dhardliners . . . softliners
- emovers . . . shakers
7) This extremist Islamic group, based particularly in northern Nigeria, has destabilized both political life and personal security in that region of the country in recent years.
- aAl Qaeda
- bAl Shabab
- cIslamic State
- eBoko Haram
8) In which historical transition did an economic crisis NOT challenge democratic consolidation?
- aRussian Revolution of 1917
- bRise of Nazism in the 1930s
- cFall of the Soviet Union in the 1990s
- dTransition of the East European countries in the 1990s
- eAll were negatively impacted by economic conditions
9) Democratization in El Salvador has involved the dismantling of the _____ party from its traditionally dominant one-party rule.
- aChristian Democratic Party (PDC)
- bParty of National Conciliation (PCN)
- cNationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA)
- dParty of Renovating Action (PAR)
- eRevolutionary Democratic Front (FDR)
10) This model of democratic transition involves a sudden shift in the regime, following a protracted period of discontent with authoritarian rule.
- cPacted transition
- eConstitutional change