1) Pacted transitions usually involve dialogue between _____ and _____ about how best to adapt the regime to the demands of democratization.
- ahaves . . . have nots
- belites . . . citizens
- cmilitary . . . politicians
- dhardliners . . . softliners
- emovers . . . shakers
2) In which historical transition did an economic crisis NOT challenge democratic consolidation?
- aRussian Revolution of 1917
- bRise of Nazism in the 1930s
- cFall of the Soviet Union in the 1990s
- dTransition of the East European countries in the 1990s
- eAll were negatively impacted by economic conditions
3) In the _____ religion, passages on the dominant religious text can be used by clerics to argue for religious leadership or the establishment of a theocracy.
4) Transition to democracy is smoothest and most durable when . . .
- apersonal authoritarian rule is in place.
- bauthoritarian elite are accustomed to competition.
- cmilitary rulers share power.
- dsingle-party rule fragments.
- edominant single parties are reformed.
5) This extremist Islamic group, based particularly in northern Nigeria, has destabilized both political life and personal security in that region of the country in recent years.
- aAl Qaeda
- bAl Shabab
- cIslamic State
- eBoko Haram
6) According to _____, presidential governments may be less stable than parliamentary ones during transition periods, as they provide incentive for executive overreach and create a divided legitimacy problem.
- aAlberto Fujimori
- bJose Sarnay
- cJuan Linz
- dHugo Chavez
- eVladimir Putin
7) Democratization in El Salvador has involved the dismantling of the _____ party from its traditionally dominant one-party rule.
- aChristian Democratic Party (PDC)
- bParty of National Conciliation (PCN)
- cNationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA)
- dParty of Renovating Action (PAR)
- eRevolutionary Democratic Front (FDR)
8) This model of democratic transition involves a sudden shift in the regime, following a protracted period of discontent with authoritarian rule.
- cPacted transition
- eConstitutional change
9) This brand of political party attempts to destroy the political establishment; its presence may be detrimental to democratization.
- aProtest party
- bMass party
- cPopulist party
- dCartel party
10) Which of the following traditionally does NOT fit into the concept of “modernization”?
- cGrowth of the middle class
- dIncreased religiosity
- eSpike in technology