1) Carl has just administered an aptitude test to a group of second graders at the elementary school where he works. Based on other evaluations, such as IQ, reasoning ability, and problem-solving success, it appears that the test Carl used accurately measured the intellectual aptitude of those who completed it. Which statement best describes the aptitude test Carl used?
- aThe test is high in reliability.
- bThe test is high in validity.
- cThe test is high in both reliability and validity.
- dThe test may be high in reliability but it is impossible to measure its validity.
2) Which step of the scientific method should a researcher complete prior to data collection?
- adevelopment of conclusions
- bdata analysis
- cposing new research questions
- dreview of the literature
3) A sociologist observes different suicide rates correlated with religious beliefs. This sociologist then develops a theory based on her observations. This process is called ___________________.
- adeductive reasoning
- bmanifest functional analysis
- cinductive reasoning
- dlatent functional analysis
4) Quantitative analysis ______________________________ to analyze and explain social events and human behavior.
- aemphasizes the use of numbers and statistics
- bstudies social phenomena over a period of time
- canalyzes the story behind the numbers produced by research
- duses experiments
5) Defining a “juvenile” as “a person who is not yet legally considered an adult” is an example of a(n) ____________________.
- aconceptual definition
- boperational definition
- cempirical definition
- dlegal definition
6) Marissa is conducting research on the food insecure and the efforts food insecure households undergo to have enough food. She has established "food insecurity" as meaning "not knowing where one’s next meal will come from at least once a month" and defines "not knowing where one’s next meal will come from" as "unable to afford to eat every meal." What has Marissa done by specifying how food insecurity is to be measured?
- aShe has formed a hypothesis.
- bShe has established operational definitions.
- cShe has engaged in the process of inductive reasoning.
- dShe has engaged in the process of deductive reasoning.
7) Which sociological perspective is least aligned with the research methods of survey research?
- ainteractionist perspective
- bstructural functionalist perspective
- cconflict perspective
- dfeminist perspective
8) The fact that global temperatures have increased at the same time that the number of pirates has decreased means that
- aincreasing global temperatures caused the decline in pirating.
- bdecreasing global temperatures would cause an increase in pirating.
- cincreasing global temperatures are correlated with the decline in pirating.
- dpirates do not like heat.
9) Natasha is conducting a research project that measures student experiences with advising at her college. The college has 20,000 undergraduate students. Natasha will be surveying 2,000 of these students by choosing them randomly. In view of this, which statement most accurately describes Natasha's research?
- aNatasha's research lacks a population but it includes a simple random sample of 2,000.
- bNatasha's research sample is composed of the 2,000 undergraduate students, and the population is the 2,000 students surveyed.
- cNatasha's research lacks a simple random sample but it includes a population of 20,000.
- dThe population in Natasha's study is the 20,000 undergraduate students and the sample is the 2,000 students surveyed.
10) In the proposition "younger drivers are worse drivers," what role does "worse" play?
- aIt is the intervening variable.
- bIt is the rival causal factor.
- cIt is the independent variable.
- dIt is the dependent variable.
11) Which sociological perspective suggests that the researcher must take on the respondent's point of view, but must maintain the distinction between ordinary and scientific conceptions of reality?
- astructural functionalist perspective
- bconflict perspective
- cinteractionist perspective
- dfeminist perspective
12) A sociologist researching why men and women are paid differently is most likely using a _______________________.
- aconflict perspective
- bfunctionalist perspective
- cfeminist perspective
- dsymbolic interactionist perspective
13) Research that asks “does it work?” is most likely what type of research?
14) Going to a doctor when one feels ill is an example of appealing to which type of knowledge?
- bcultural tradition
15) Which type of knowledge requires tangible evidence and empirical verification before it is affirmed?
- bcultural tradition
16) In the proposition “breastfeeding tremendously increases infant IQ,” which of the following segments qualifies as the independent variable?
17) Standpoint theory, which contends that people’s perspectives are shaped by experiences that help form a standpoint from which they see and interpret the world, is most closely associated with which perspective?
- dsymbolic interactionist
18) How will sociological research be impacted by technology in the future?
- aThe impact of technology will probably be greater.
- bThe impact of technology will probably be about the same.
- cThere will probably be little change in the impact of technology on research.
- dIt is impossible to predict the impact technology will have on research in the future.
19) A __________ is referred to as a set of interrelated propositions that attempt to explain some phenomenon.
20) As a researcher, including a statement noting that your research project was funded by a foundation is an example of following which ethical principle from the American Sociological Association?
- aMaintain objectivity, integrity, confidentiality, and social responsibility in research.
- bRespect and protect the privacy, dignity, and safety of research subjects.
- cDo not discriminate or misuse or abuse the research role.
- dDisclose all assistance and support.