1) Which group of theories concentrates more on the origin of norms and their enforcement than on the behavior of individuals?
- asymbolic theories of deviance
- bconflict theories of deviance
- cstructuralist theories of deviance
- dsocialistic theories of deviance
2) Which theory of social control states that deviance will be effectively reduced if negative social sanctions are perceived to be swift, certain, and severe?
- asocial learning theory
- bthe medical model
- cdeterrence theory
- dthe structuralist model
3) Which of the following variables is the most influential in determining whether or not an action is deviant?
- athe type of person who committed the act
- bthe age of the person who committed the act
- cthe cultural context in which the behavior occurs
- dthe legal status of the behavior
4) What was the form of suicide Durkheim identified in more closely bonded groups as a result of extreme social integration?
- aegoistic suicide
- baltruistic suicide
- cfatalistic suicide
- danomic suicide
5) The widespread use of the term “mental illness” and the view that deviants are “sick” demonstrates the power of what?
- athe media
- bthe pervasiveness of the medical model
- cthe pervasiveness of demonology
- dthe ignorance of the average American
6) Which theorist proposed that crime is a normal part of all societies and all societies institutionalize sanctions to control criminals?
- aRobert Merton
- bÉmile Durkheim
- cEdwin Sutherland
- dTravis Hirschi
7) Evaluating behavior in reference to some pre-established standard of behavior is called the ________.
- asocietal reactive approach
- bnormative approach
- cprescriptive approach
- dproscriptive approach
8) While most would agree that wild dancing is allowable during the night hours, wild dancing during the day is considered deviant. These attitudes reflect how deviance varies depending on ____________.
9) _______ is the oldest theoretical explanation for deviant behavior.
10) Which technique of neutralization describes this scenario: “I parked in the ‘no parking’ zone because otherwise I would be late for class and my professor does not let latecomers enter the classroom”?
- adenial of responsibility
- bdenial of injury
- cdenial of the victim
- dappeal to higher loyalties
11) Which mode of adaptive behavior rejects socially approved means and pursues goals, but substitutes deviant means to achieve them?
12) Graduating from college and hard work would be which of the following in Merton's anomie theory?
- aillegitimate opportunity
- bthe profit motive
- cculturally approved means
- dsocially accepted goals
13) What type of stigma is experienced by someone with visible scarring, an amputated limb, obesity, or premature hair loss?
- aabominations of the body
- bblemishes of individual character
- ctribal stigma
- dflaws of individual choice
14) Erica and Jayden’s parents decide to move to a new neighborhood and change schools after one of Jayden’s friends is arrested and one of Erica’s friends becomes pregnant. Which sociological theory used to explain deviance best supports their parents’ actions?
- asocial control theory
- bcontainment theory
- clabeling theory
- ddifferential association theory
15) Based on the theories of Edwin Lemert, ________________ is when a person has internalized a deviant label and the assumption of a deviant role.
- aelite deviance
- bpublic deviance
- cprimary deviance
- dsecondary deviance
16) Which theorist described deviance as a social pathology that potentially threatens the survival of society?
- aHerbert Spencer
- bRobert Merton
- cPatricia Hill Collins
- dLaud Humphreys
17) Which statement is LEAST accurate in describing deviance and conformity?
- aDeviance and conformity are absolutes.
- bDeviance is not always considered a negative behavior and conformity is not always positive.
- cEven with social reform and the proper incentives, deviance cannot be eliminated from society.
- dDeviance and conformity are relative terms based on a number of societal variables.
18) Which of the following is NOT true regarding cybercrime?
- aCybercrime is likely to increase in the future.
- bLaw enforcement is not adequately prepared to address cybercrime.
- cThe cost of cybercrime is minimal.
- dAlmost everyone with an email account has encountered potential cybercrime.
19) According to the ___________________, females have not committed as much crime, delinquency, and other forms of deviance because of rigid gender roles and fewer opportunities afforded them.
- aanomie theory
- bliberation hypothesis
- csocial control theory
- dSapir-Whorf thesis
20) Calvin left his backpack in the school cafeteria. Bridget found it and returned it to campus police. The fact that no one stole Calvin's backpack and it was turned in indicates that social control is ______________.
- aexternal to the individual