1) Sociologists contend that one’s opportunities in life are correlated with social class. What is the term used by sociologists to describe this phenomenon?
- aluck of the draw
- blife’s lottery
- clife chances
- dlucky duck syndrome
2) Based on occupation alone, a college professor would be part of the _________________, while a fourth grade teacher would be part of the _________________.
- alower middle class; working class
- bupper middle class; lower middle class
- cupper middle class; working class
- dupper class; upper middle class
3) Jenny’s best friend is going to Disney World during spring break. Jenny’s family is not able to afford a vacation. They can only afford to attend a free concert in the park and go out for pizza. Jenny is experiencing ______________.
- aabsolute poverty
- bcomparative poverty
- crelative poverty
- ddestitute poverty
4) Most Americans see the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige as inevitable and even socially beneficial, with the gifted and hardworking rising to the top and those lacking in these qualities falling to the bottom. This perspective is called ___________.
- aideology of personal responsibility
- bideology of equal opportunity
- cthe Peter Principle
- dHawthorne effect
5) Which of the following statements is LEAST ACCURATE regarding the reality of poverty?
- aMost poor people are white.
- bAbout ten percent of white Americans live in poverty.
- cAsian Americans have the highest rates of poverty.
- dNative Americans have the highest poverty rate among all minorities.
6) Choosing to purchase brand name bottled water or buying coffee from a brand name coffee shop are examples of _________________.
- aconspicuous leisure
- bconspicuous consumption
- dshow-off syndrome
7) Oliver’s family is poor. Oliver’s grandparents are poor. Oliver’s great-grandparents were also poor. The fact that three generations of Oliver’s family have been poor suggests evidence of ____________.
- athe ideology of perpetual poverty
- brelative poverty
- cthe culture of poverty
- dthe ideology of economic irresponsibility
8) The poverty line is determined by
- amultiplying a person’s food budget by three and making adjustments for family size and cost of living.
- bmultiplying a person’s housing budget by two and making adjustments for family size and cost of living.
- cmultiplying a person’s food budget by five and making adjustments for family size and cost of living.
- dmultiplying a person’s food budget by three and housing budget by two and making adjustments for family size and cost of living.
9) The type of capitalism currently practiced in the United States is referred to as _____________________.
- acompetitive capitalism
- bsocialist capitalism
- cmonopoly capitalism
- dglobalization capitalism
10) What is the social stratification system practiced in the United States today?
- athe caste system
- bthe track and level system
- cthe class system
- dthe estate system
11) Oprah Winfrey was born into poverty and is now one of the most well-known and wealthiest women in the world. Her change in social class can be described as ___________.
- avertical mobility
- bhorizontal mobility
- cdiagonal mobility
12) Social differentiation sets the stage for ___________.
- asocial inequality
- bsocial solidarity
- cthe credentialism of society
- dthe hidden curriculum in schools
13) When a lawyer is disbarred or a doctor loses his or her license to practice medicine, they are experiencing ______________.
- avertical mobility
- bintergenerational mobility
- chorizontal mobility
- dexchange mobility
14) An elementary school teacher usually has ____________ and _________________, but not _______________.
- aauthority; property; prestige
- bpower; prestige; property
- cproperty; prestige; power
- dauthority; wealth; prestige
15) Once slavery was abolished in the United States, which system of stratification did Southern blacks enter into?
- athe slave system
- bthe estate system
- cthe class system
- dthe caste system
16) Sociologists use the concept ________________ to describe the disproportionate share of women and girls among those in poverty.
- athe feminization of poverty
- bpatriarchal life chances
- ceconomic sexism
- dpatriarchal capitalism
17) Which of the following is NOT true regarding wealth and income in the United States?
- aThe top one percent of the population owns about 40 percent of all wealth in the United States.
- bThe overall average household income is $53,657.
- cThe wealthiest ten percent of households own 80 percent of the nation’s stocks.
- dMost Americans are able to accumulate approximately $2.7 million in their retirement accounts.
18) A social hierarchy centered on the monopoly of power and ownership of land by a group of religious and political elites is called a(n) _______________ system.
19) Which group has seen its poverty rates increase the fastest?
- achildren 18 years of age or younger
- byoung adults
- colder adults
- dmiddle-aged adults
20) Overall, which minority groups have poverty rates between 20-25 percent?
- aAfrican Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans
- bNative Americans and Latinos
- cLatinos and African Americans
- dPacific Islanders, African Americans, and Latino